NAME

perltoc - perl documentation table of contents


DESCRIPTION

This page provides a brief table of contents for the rest of the Perl documentation set. It is meant to be scanned quickly or grepped through to locate the proper section you're looking for.


BASIC DOCUMENTATION

perl - Practical Extraction and Report Language

SYNOPSIS
Overview
Tutorials
Reference Manual
Internals and C Language Interface
Miscellaneous
Language-Specific
Platform-Specific
DESCRIPTION
AVAILABILITY
ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR
FILES
SEE ALSO
DIAGNOSTICS
BUGS
NOTES

perlintro -- a brief introduction and overview of Perl

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Running Perl programs
Basic syntax overview
Perl variable types

Scalars, Arrays, Hashes

Variable scoping
Conditional and looping constructs

if, while, for, foreach

Builtin operators and functions

Arithmetic, Numeric comparison, String comparison, Boolean logic, Miscellaneous

Files and I/O
Regular expressions

Simple matching, Simple substitution, More complex regular expressions, Parentheses for capturing, Other regexp features

Writing subroutines
OO Perl
Using Perl modules
AUTHOR

perlreftut - Mark's very short tutorial about references

DESCRIPTION
Who Needs Complicated Data Structures?
The Solution
Syntax
Making References
Using References
An Example
Arrow Rule
Solution
The Rest
Summary
Credits
Distribution Conditions

perldsc - Perl Data Structures Cookbook

DESCRIPTION

arrays of arrays, hashes of arrays, arrays of hashes, hashes of hashes, more elaborate constructs

REFERENCES
COMMON MISTAKES
CAVEAT ON PRECEDENCE
WHY YOU SHOULD ALWAYS use strict
DEBUGGING
CODE EXAMPLES
ARRAYS OF ARRAYS
Declaration of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
Generation of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF ARRAYS
HASHES OF ARRAYS
Declaration of a HASH OF ARRAYS
Generation of a HASH OF ARRAYS
Access and Printing of a HASH OF ARRAYS
ARRAYS OF HASHES
Declaration of an ARRAY OF HASHES
Generation of an ARRAY OF HASHES
Access and Printing of an ARRAY OF HASHES
HASHES OF HASHES
Declaration of a HASH OF HASHES
Generation of a HASH OF HASHES
Access and Printing of a HASH OF HASHES
MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of MORE ELABORATE RECORDS
Declaration of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Generation of a HASH OF COMPLEX RECORDS
Database Ties
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perllol - Manipulating Arrays of Arrays in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Declaration and Access of Arrays of Arrays
Growing Your Own
Access and Printing
Slices
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlrequick - Perl regular expressions quick start

DESCRIPTION
The Guide
Simple word matching
Using character classes
Matching this or that
Grouping things and hierarchical matching
Extracting matches
Matching repetitions
More matching
Search and replace
The split operator
BUGS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perlretut - Perl regular expressions tutorial

DESCRIPTION
Part 1: The basics
Simple word matching
Using character classes
Matching this or that
Grouping things and hierarchical matching
Extracting matches
Matching repetitions
Building a regexp
Using regular expressions in Perl
Part 2: Power tools
More on characters, strings, and character classes
Compiling and saving regular expressions
Embedding comments and modifiers in a regular expression
Non-capturing groupings
Looking ahead and looking behind
Using independent subexpressions to prevent backtracking
Conditional expressions
A bit of magic: executing Perl code in a regular expression
Pragmas and debugging
BUGS
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perlboot - Beginner's Object-Oriented Tutorial

DESCRIPTION
If we could talk to the animals...
Introducing the method invocation arrow
Invoking a barnyard
The extra parameter of method invocation
Calling a second method to simplify things
Inheriting the windpipes
A few notes about @ISA
Overriding the methods
Starting the search from a different place
The SUPER way of doing things
Where we're at so far...
A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?
Invoking an instance method
Accessing the instance data
How to build a horse
Inheriting the constructor
Making a method work with either classes or instances
Adding parameters to a method
More interesting instances
A horse of a different color
Summary
SEE ALSO
COPYRIGHT

perltoot - Tom's object-oriented tutorial for perl

DESCRIPTION
Creating a Class
Object Representation
Class Interface
Constructors and Instance Methods
Planning for the Future: Better Constructors
Destructors
Other Object Methods
Class Data
Accessing Class Data
Debugging Methods
Class Destructors
Documenting the Interface
Aggregation
Inheritance
Overridden Methods
Multiple Inheritance
UNIVERSAL: The Root of All Objects
Alternate Object Representations
Arrays as Objects
Closures as Objects
AUTOLOAD: Proxy Methods
Autoloaded Data Methods
Inherited Autoloaded Data Methods
Metaclassical Tools
Class::Struct
Data Members as Variables
NOTES
Object Terminology
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
COPYRIGHT
Acknowledgments

perltooc - Tom's OO Tutorial for Class Data in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Class Data in a Can
Class Data as Package Variables
Putting All Your Eggs in One Basket
Inheritance Concerns
The Eponymous Meta-Object
Indirect References to Class Data
Monadic Classes
Translucent Attributes
Class Data as Lexical Variables
Privacy and Responsibility
File-Scoped Lexicals
More Inheritance Concerns
Locking the Door and Throwing Away the Key
Translucency Revisited
NOTES
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
HISTORY

perlbot - Bag'o Object Tricks (the BOT)

DESCRIPTION
OO SCALING TIPS
INSTANCE VARIABLES
SCALAR INSTANCE VARIABLES
INSTANCE VARIABLE INHERITANCE
OBJECT RELATIONSHIPS
OVERRIDING SUPERCLASS METHODS
USING RELATIONSHIP WITH SDBM
THINKING OF CODE REUSE
CLASS CONTEXT AND THE OBJECT
INHERITING A CONSTRUCTOR
DELEGATION
SEE ALSO

perlstyle - Perl style guide

DESCRIPTION

perlcheat - Perl 5 Cheat Sheet

DESCRIPTION
The sheet
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perltrap - Perl traps for the unwary

DESCRIPTION
Awk Traps
C/C++ Traps
Sed Traps
Shell Traps
Perl Traps
Perl4 to Perl5 Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps, Parsing Traps, Numerical Traps, General data type traps, Context Traps - scalar, list contexts, Precedence Traps, General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc, Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps, OS Traps, DBM Traps, Unclassified Traps

Discontinuance, Deprecation, and BugFix traps

Symbols starting with ``_'' no longer forced into main, Double-colon valid package separator in variable name, 2nd and 3rd args to splice() are now in scalar context, Can't do goto into a block that is optimized away, Can't use whitespace as variable name or quote delimiter, while/if BLOCK BLOCK gone, ** binds tighter than unary minus, foreach changed when iterating over a list, split with no args behavior changed, -e behavior fixed, push returns number of elements in resulting list, Some error messages differ, split() honors subroutine args, Bugs removed

Parsing Traps

Space between . and = triggers syntax error, Better parsing in perl 5, Function parsing, String interpolation of $#array differs, Perl guesses on map, grep followed by { if it starts BLOCK or hash ref

Numerical Traps

Formatted output and significant digits, Auto-increment operator over signed int limit deleted, Assignment of return values from numeric equality tests doesn't work, Bitwise string ops

General data type traps

Negative array subscripts now count from the end of array, Setting $#array lower now discards array elements, Hashes get defined before use, Glob assignment from localized variable to variable, Assigning undef to glob, Changes in unary negation (of strings), Modifying of constants prohibited, defined $var behavior changed, Variable Suicide

Context Traps - scalar, list contexts

Elements of argument lists for formats evaluated in list context, caller() returns false value in scalar context if no caller present, Comma operator in scalar context gives scalar context to args, sprintf() prototyped as ($;@)

Precedence Traps

LHS vs. RHS of any assignment operator, Semantic errors introduced due to precedence, Precedence of assignment operators same as the precedence of assignment, open requires parentheses around filehandle, $: precedence over $:: gone, Precedence of file test operators documented, keys, each, values are regular named unary operators

General Regular Expression Traps using s///, etc.

s'$lhs'$rhs' interpolates on either side, m//g attaches its state to the searched string, m//o used within an anonymous sub, $+ isn't set to whole match, Substitution now returns null string if it fails, s`lhs`rhs` is now a normal substitution, Stricter parsing of variables in regular expressions, m?x? matches only once, Failed matches don't reset the match variables

Subroutine, Signal, Sorting Traps

Barewords that used to look like strings look like subroutine calls, Reverse is no longer allowed as the name of a sort subroutine, warn() won't let you specify a filehandle

OS Traps

SysV resets signal handler correctly, SysV seek() appends correctly

Interpolation Traps

@ always interpolates an array in double-quotish strings, Double-quoted strings may no longer end with an unescaped $, Arbitrary expressions are evaluated inside braces within double quotes, $$x now tries to dereference $x, Creation of hashes on the fly with eval "EXPR" requires protection, Bugs in earlier perl versions, Array and hash brackets during interpolation, Interpolation of \$$foo{bar}, qq() string passed to eval will not find string terminator

DBM Traps

Perl5 must have been linked with same dbm/ndbm as the default for dbmopen(), DBM exceeding limit on the key/value size will cause perl5 to exit immediately

Unclassified Traps

require/do trap using returned value, split on empty string with LIMIT specified

perldebtut - Perl debugging tutorial

DESCRIPTION
use strict
Looking at data and -w and v
help
Stepping through code
Placeholder for a, w, t, T
REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
OUTPUT TIPS
CGI
GUIs
SUMMARY
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR
CONTRIBUTORS

perlfaq - frequently asked questions about Perl ($Date: 2005/12/30 15:04:07 $)

DESCRIPTION
Where to get the perlfaq
How to contribute to the perlfaq
What will happen if you mail your Perl programming problems to the authors
Credits
Author and Copyright Information
Bundled Distributions
Disclaimer
Table of Contents

perlfaq - this document, perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl, perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl, perlfaq3 - Programming Tools, perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation, perlfaq5 - Files and Formats, perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions, perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues, perlfaq8 - System Interaction, perlfaq9 - Networking

The Questions
the perlfaq1 manpage: General Questions About Perl
the perlfaq2 manpage: Obtaining and Learning about Perl
the perlfaq3 manpage: Programming Tools
the perlfaq4 manpage: Data Manipulation
the perlfaq5 manpage: Files and Formats
the perlfaq6 manpage: Regular Expressions
the perlfaq7 manpage: General Perl Language Issues
the perlfaq8 manpage: System Interaction
the perlfaq9 manpage: Networking

perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl ($Revision: 1.19 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
What is Perl?
Who supports Perl? Who develops it? Why is it free?
Which version of Perl should I use?
What are perl4, perl5, or perl6?
What is Ponie?
What is perl6?
How stable is Perl?
Is Perl difficult to learn?
How does Perl compare with other languages like Java, Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?
Can I do [task] in Perl?
When shouldn't I program in Perl?
What's the difference between ``perl'' and ``Perl''?
Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?
What is a JAPH?
Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?
How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to use version 5/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other language?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
What machines support perl? Where do I get it?
How can I get a binary version of perl?
I don't have a C compiler. How can I build my own Perl interpreter?
I copied the perl binary from one machine to another, but scripts don't work.
I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed. How do I make it work?
What modules and extensions are available for Perl? What is CPAN? What does CPAN/src/... mean?
Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?
Where can I get information on Perl?
What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet? Where do I post questions?
Where should I post source code?
Perl Books

References, Tutorials, Task-Oriented, Special Topics

Perl in Magazines
Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access
What mailing lists are there for Perl?
Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc
Where can I buy a commercial version of perl?
Where do I send bug reports?
What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org? cpan.org?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq3 - Programming Tools ($Revision: 1.56 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I do (anything)?
How can I use Perl interactively?
Is there a Perl shell?
How do I find which modules are installed on my system?
How do I debug my Perl programs?
How do I profile my Perl programs?
How do I cross-reference my Perl programs?
Is there a pretty-printer (formatter) for Perl?
Is there a ctags for Perl?
Is there an IDE or Windows Perl Editor?

Eclipse, Enginsite, Komodo, Open Perl IDE, OptiPerl, PerlBuilder, visiPerl+, Visual Perl, Zeus, GNU Emacs, MicroEMACS, XEmacs, Jed, Elvis, Vile, Vim, Codewright, MultiEdit, SlickEdit, Bash, Ksh, Tcsh, Zsh, Affrus, Alpha, BBEdit and BBEdit Lite

Where can I get Perl macros for vi?
Where can I get perl-mode for emacs?
How can I use curses with Perl?
How can I use X or Tk with Perl?
How can I make my Perl program run faster?
How can I make my Perl program take less memory?

Don't slurp!, Use map and grep selectively, Avoid unnecessary quotes and stringification, Pass by reference, Tie large variables to disk

Is it safe to return a reference to local or lexical data?
How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?
How can I make my CGI script more efficient?
How can I hide the source for my Perl program?
How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?
How can I compile Perl into Java?
How can I get #!perl to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?
Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?
Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS system?
Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in Perl?
Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl programming?
Where can I learn about linking C with Perl?
I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed perl in my C program; what am I doing wrong?
When I tried to run my script, I got this message. What does it mean?
What's MakeMaker?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation ($Revision: 1.73 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
Data: Numbers
Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999) instead of the numbers I should be getting (eg, 19.95)?
Why is int() broken?
Why isn't my octal data interpreted correctly?
Does Perl have a round() function? What about ceil() and floor()? Trig functions?
How do I convert between numeric representations/bases/radixes?

How do I convert hexadecimal into decimal, How do I convert from decimal to hexadecimal, How do I convert from octal to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to octal, How do I convert from binary to decimal, How do I convert from decimal to binary

Why doesn't & work the way I want it to?
How do I multiply matrices?
How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?
How can I output Roman numerals?
Why aren't my random numbers random?
How do I get a random number between X and Y?
Data: Dates
How do I find the day or week of the year?
How do I find the current century or millennium?
How can I compare two dates and find the difference?
How can I take a string and turn it into epoch seconds?
How can I find the Julian Day?
How do I find yesterday's date?
Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem? Is Perl Y2K compliant?
Data: Strings
How do I validate input?
How do I unescape a string?
How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?
How do I expand function calls in a string?
How do I find matching/nesting anything?
How do I reverse a string?
How do I expand tabs in a string?
How do I reformat a paragraph?
How can I access or change N characters of a string?
How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?
How can I count the number of occurrences of a substring within a string?
How do I capitalize all the words on one line?
How can I split a [character] delimited string except when inside [character]?
How do I strip blank space from the beginning/end of a string?
How do I pad a string with blanks or pad a number with zeroes?
How do I extract selected columns from a string?
How do I find the soundex value of a string?
How can I expand variables in text strings?
What's wrong with always quoting ``$vars''?
Why don't my <<HERE documents work?

There must be no space after the << part, There (probably) should be a semicolon at the end, You can't (easily) have any space in front of the tag

Data: Arrays
What is the difference between a list and an array?
What is the difference between $array[1] and @array[1]?
How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or array?
How can I tell whether a certain element is contained in a list or array?
How do I compute the difference of two arrays? How do I compute the intersection of two arrays?
How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?
How do I find the first array element for which a condition is true?
How do I handle linked lists?
How do I handle circular lists?
How do I shuffle an array randomly?
How do I process/modify each element of an array?
How do I select a random element from an array?
How do I permute N elements of a list?
How do I sort an array by (anything)?
How do I manipulate arrays of bits?
Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and hashes?
Data: Hashes (Associative Arrays)
How do I process an entire hash?
What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while iterating over it?
How do I look up a hash element by value?
How can I know how many entries are in a hash?
How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of key)?
How can I always keep my hash sorted?
What's the difference between ``delete'' and ``undef'' with hashes?
Why don't my tied hashes make the defined/exists distinction?
How do I reset an each() operation part-way through?
How can I get the unique keys from two hashes?
How can I store a multidimensional array in a DBM file?
How can I make my hash remember the order I put elements into it?
Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in a hash create it?
How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?
How can I use a reference as a hash key?
Data: Misc
How do I handle binary data correctly?
How do I determine whether a scalar is a number/whole/integer/float?
How do I keep persistent data across program calls?
How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?
How do I define methods for every class/object?
How do I verify a credit card checksum?
How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq5 - Files and Formats ($Revision: 1.42 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle? Why must I do this?
How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to the beginning of a file?
How do I count the number of lines in a file?
How can I use Perl's -i option from within a program?
How can I copy a file?
How do I make a temporary file name?
How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?
How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine? How do I pass filehandles between subroutines? How do I make an array of filehandles?
How can I use a filehandle indirectly?
How can I set up a footer format to be used with write()?
How can I write() into a string?
How can I output my numbers with commas added?
How can I translate tildes (~) in a filename?
How come when I open a file read-write it wipes it out?
Why do I sometimes get an ``Argument list too long'' when I use <*>?
Is there a leak/bug in glob()?
How can I open a file with a leading ``>'' or trailing blanks?
How can I reliably rename a file?
How can I lock a file?
Why can't I just open(FH, ``>file.lock'')?
I still don't get locking. I just want to increment the number in the file. How can I do this?
All I want to do is append a small amount of text to the end of a file. Do I still have to use locking?
How do I randomly update a binary file?
How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?
How do I print to more than one file at once?
How can I read in an entire file all at once?
How can I read in a file by paragraphs?
How can I read a single character from a file? From the keyboard?
How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on a filehandle?
How do I do a tail -f in perl?
How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?
How do I close a file descriptor by number?
Why can't I use ``C:\temp\foo'' in DOS paths? Why doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?
Why doesn't glob(``*.*'') get all the files?
Why does Perl let me delete read-only files? Why does -i clobber protected files? Isn't this a bug in Perl?
How do I select a random line from a file?
Why do I get weird spaces when I print an array of lines?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions ($Revision: 1.38 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
How can I hope to use regular expressions without creating illegible and unmaintainable code?

Comments Outside the Regex, Comments Inside the Regex, Different Delimiters

I'm having trouble matching over more than one line. What's wrong?
How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are themselves on different lines?
I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work. What's wrong?
How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS while preserving case on the RHS?
How can I make \w match national character sets?
How can I match a locale-smart version of /[a-zA-Z]/?
How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?
What is /o really for?
How do I use a regular expression to strip C style comments from a file?
Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
What does it mean that regexes are greedy? How can I get around it?
How do I process each word on each line?
How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency summary?
How can I do approximate matching?
How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at once?
Why don't word-boundary searches with \b work for me?
Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?
What good is \G in a regular expression?
Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs? Are they POSIX compliant?
What's wrong with using grep in a void context?
How can I match strings with multibyte characters?
How do I match a pattern that is supplied by the user?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
Can I get a BNF/yacc/RE for the Perl language?
What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do I know when to use them?
Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use semicolons and commas?
How do I skip some return values?
How do I temporarily block warnings?
What's an extension?
Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C operators?
How do I declare/create a structure?
How do I create a module?
How do I create a class?
How can I tell if a variable is tainted?
What's a closure?
What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?
How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array, Hash, Method, Regex}?

Passing Variables and Functions, Passing Filehandles, Passing Regexes, Passing Methods

How do I create a static variable?
What's the difference between dynamic and lexical (static) scoping? Between local() and my()?
How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly named lexical is in scope?
What's the difference between deep and shallow binding?
Why doesn't ``my($foo) = <FILE>;'' work right?
How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or method?
What's the difference between calling a function as &foo and foo()?
How do I create a switch or case statement?
How can I catch accesses to undefined variables, functions, or methods?
Why can't a method included in this same file be found?
How can I find out my current package?
How can I comment out a large block of perl code?
How do I clear a package?
How can I use a variable as a variable name?
What does ``bad interpreter'' mean?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq8 - System Interaction ($Revision: 1.27 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
How do I find out which operating system I'm running under?
How come exec() doesn't return?
How do I do fancy stuff with the keyboard/screen/mouse?

Keyboard, Screen, Mouse

How do I print something out in color?
How do I read just one key without waiting for a return key?
How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?
How do I clear the screen?
How do I get the screen size?
How do I ask the user for a password?
How do I read and write the serial port?

lockfiles, open mode, end of line, flushing output, non-blocking input

How do I decode encrypted password files?
How do I start a process in the background?

STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR are shared, Signals, Zombies

How do I trap control characters/signals?
How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix system?
How do I set the time and date?
How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?
How can I measure time under a second?
How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()? (Exception handling)
Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V (Solaris)? What does the error message ``Protocol not supported'' mean?
How can I call my system's unique C functions from Perl?
Where do I get the include files to do ioctl() or syscall()?
Why do setuid perl scripts complain about kernel problems?
How can I open a pipe both to and from a command?
Why can't I get the output of a command with system()?
How can I capture STDERR from an external command?
Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open fails?
What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?
How can I call backticks without shell processing?
Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?
How can I convert my shell script to perl?
Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?
How can I write expect in Perl?
Is there a way to hide perl's command line from programs such as ``ps''?
I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a perl script. How come the change disappeared when I exited the script? How do I get my changes to be visible?

Unix

How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting for it to complete?
How do I fork a daemon process?
How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?
How do I timeout a slow event?
How do I set CPU limits?
How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?
How do I use an SQL database?
How do I make a system() exit on control-C?
How do I open a file without blocking?
How do I tell the difference between errors from the shell and perl?
How do I install a module from CPAN?
What's the difference between require and use?
How do I keep my own module/library directory?
How do I add the directory my program lives in to the module/library search path?
How do I add a directory to my include path (@INC) at runtime?
What is socket.ph and where do I get it?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlfaq9 - Networking ($Revision: 1.28 $, $Date: 2005/12/31 00:54:37 $)

DESCRIPTION
What is the correct form of response from a CGI script?
My CGI script runs from the command line but not the browser. (500 Server Error)
How can I get better error messages from a CGI program?
How do I remove HTML from a string?
How do I extract URLs?
How do I download a file from the user's machine? How do I open a file on another machine?
How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?
How do I fetch an HTML file?
How do I automate an HTML form submission?
How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the web?
How do I redirect to another page?
How do I put a password on my web pages?
How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with Perl?
How do I make sure users can't enter values into a form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?
How do I parse a mail header?
How do I decode a CGI form?
How do I check a valid mail address?
How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?
How do I return the user's mail address?
How do I send mail?
How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail message?
How do I read mail?
How do I find out my hostname, domainname, or IP address?
How do I fetch a news article or the active newsgroups?
How do I fetch/put an FTP file?
How can I do RPC in Perl?
AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

perlsyn - Perl syntax

DESCRIPTION
Declarations
Comments
Simple Statements
Truth and Falsehood
Statement Modifiers
Compound Statements
Loop Control
For Loops
Foreach Loops
Basic BLOCKs and Switch Statements
Goto
PODs: Embedded Documentation
Plain Old Comments (Not!)

perldata - Perl data types

DESCRIPTION
Variable names
Context
Scalar values
Scalar value constructors
List value constructors
Subscripts
Slices
Typeglobs and Filehandles
SEE ALSO

perlop - Perl operators and precedence

DESCRIPTION
Operator Precedence and Associativity
Terms and List Operators (Leftward)
The Arrow Operator >>
Auto-increment and Auto-decrement
Exponentiation
Symbolic Unary Operators
Binding Operators
Multiplicative Operators
Additive Operators
Shift Operators >> > >>>
Named Unary Operators
Relational Operators
Equality Operators
Bitwise And
Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or
C-style Logical And
C-style Logical Or
Range Operators
Conditional Operator
Assignment Operators >> >= >>>
Comma Operator
List Operators (Rightward)
Logical Not
Logical And
Logical or and Exclusive Or
C Operators Missing From Perl

unary &, unary *, (TYPE)

Quote and Quote-like Operators >>
Regexp Quote-Like Operators

?PATTERN? , m/PATTERN/cgimosx , /PATTERN/cgimosx, q/STRING/ , 'STRING', qq/STRING/ , ``STRING'', qr/STRING/imosx , qx/STRING/ , `STRING`, qw/STRING/ , s/PATTERN/REPLACEMENT/egimosx , tr/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds , y/SEARCHLIST/REPLACEMENTLIST/cds, <<EOF >>

Gory details of parsing quoted constructs

Finding the end, Removal of backslashes before delimiters, Interpolation , <<'EOF', m'', s''', tr///, y///, '', q//, "", ``, qq//, qx//, <file*glob>, ?RE?, /RE/, m/RE/, s/RE/foo/,, Interpolation of regular expressions , Optimization of regular expressions

I/O Operators >>
Constant Folding
No-ops
Bitwise String Operators
Integer Arithmetic
Floating-point Arithmetic
Bigger Numbers

perlsub - Perl subroutines

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Private Variables via my()
Persistent Private Variables
Temporary Values via local()
Lvalue subroutines

Lvalue subroutines are EXPERIMENTAL

Passing Symbol Table Entries (typeglobs)
When to Still Use local()
Pass by Reference
Prototypes
Constant Functions
Overriding Built-in Functions
Autoloading
Subroutine Attributes
SEE ALSO

perlfunc - Perl builtin functions

DESCRIPTION
Perl Functions by Category

Functions for SCALARs or strings , Regular expressions and pattern matching , Numeric functions , Functions for real @ARRAYs , Functions for list data , Functions for real %HASHes , Input and output functions , Functions for fixed length data or records, Functions for filehandles, files, or directories , Keywords related to the control flow of your Perl program , Keywords related to scoping, Miscellaneous functions, Functions for processes and process groups , Keywords related to perl modules , Keywords related to classes and object-orientedness , Low-level socket functions , System V interprocess communication functions , Fetching user and group info , Fetching network info , Time-related functions , Functions new in perl5 , Functions obsoleted in perl5

Portability
Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X FILEHANDLE , -X EXPR, -X, abs VALUE , abs, accept NEWSOCKET,GENERICSOCKET , alarm SECONDS , alarm, atan2 Y,X , bind SOCKET,NAME , binmode FILEHANDLE, LAYER , binmode FILEHANDLE, bless REF,CLASSNAME , bless REF, caller EXPR , caller, chdir EXPR , chdir FILEHANDLE, chdir DIRHANDLE, chdir, chmod LIST , chomp VARIABLE , chomp( LIST ), chomp, chop VARIABLE , chop( LIST ), chop, chown LIST , chr NUMBER , chr, chroot FILENAME , chroot, close FILEHANDLE , close, closedir DIRHANDLE , connect SOCKET,NAME , continue BLOCK , cos EXPR , cos, crypt PLAINTEXT,SALT , dbmclose HASH , dbmopen HASH,DBNAME,MASK , defined EXPR , defined, delete EXPR , die LIST , do BLOCK , do SUBROUTINE(LIST) , do EXPR , dump LABEL , dump, each HASH , eof FILEHANDLE , eof (), eof, eval EXPR , eval BLOCK, eval, exec LIST , exec PROGRAM LIST, exists EXPR , exit EXPR , exit, exp EXPR , exp, fcntl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR , fileno FILEHANDLE , flock FILEHANDLE,OPERATION , fork , format , formline PICTURE,LIST , getc FILEHANDLE , getc, getlogin , getpeername SOCKET , getpgrp PID , getppid , getpriority WHICH,WHO , getpwnam NAME , getgrnam NAME, gethostbyname NAME, getnetbyname NAME, getprotobyname NAME, getpwuid UID, getgrgid GID, getservbyname NAME,PROTO, gethostbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getnetbyaddr ADDR,ADDRTYPE, getprotobynumber NUMBER, getservbyport PORT,PROTO, getpwent, getgrent, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, setpwent, setgrent, sethostent STAYOPEN, setnetent STAYOPEN, setprotoent STAYOPEN, setservent STAYOPEN, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockname SOCKET , getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME , glob EXPR , glob, gmtime EXPR , gmtime, goto LABEL , goto EXPR, goto &NAME, grep BLOCK LIST , grep EXPR,LIST, hex EXPR , hex, import LIST , index STR,SUBSTR,POSITION , index STR,SUBSTR, int EXPR , int, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR , join EXPR,LIST , keys HASH , kill SIGNAL, LIST , last LABEL , last, lc EXPR , lc, lcfirst EXPR , lcfirst, length EXPR , length, link OLDFILE,NEWFILE , listen SOCKET,QUEUESIZE , local EXPR , localtime EXPR , localtime, lock THING , log EXPR , log, lstat EXPR , lstat, m//, map BLOCK LIST , map EXPR,LIST, mkdir FILENAME,MASK , mkdir FILENAME, msgctl ID,CMD,ARG , msgget KEY,FLAGS , msgrcv ID,VAR,SIZE,TYPE,FLAGS , msgsnd ID,MSG,FLAGS , my EXPR , my TYPE EXPR, my EXPR : ATTRS, my TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, next LABEL , next, no Module VERSION LIST , no Module VERSION, no Module LIST, no Module, oct EXPR , oct, open FILEHANDLE,EXPR , open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,EXPR,LIST, open FILEHANDLE,MODE,REFERENCE, open FILEHANDLE, opendir DIRHANDLE,EXPR , ord EXPR , ord, our EXPR , our EXPR TYPE, our EXPR : ATTRS, our TYPE EXPR : ATTRS, pack TEMPLATE,LIST , package NAMESPACE , package, pipe READHANDLE,WRITEHANDLE , pop ARRAY , pop, pos SCALAR , pos, print FILEHANDLE LIST , print LIST, print, printf FILEHANDLE FORMAT, LIST , printf FORMAT, LIST, prototype FUNCTION , push ARRAY,LIST , , q/STRING/, qq/STRING/, qr/STRING/, qx/STRING/, qw/STRING/, quotemeta EXPR , quotemeta, rand EXPR , rand, read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , read FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, readdir DIRHANDLE , readline EXPR , readlink EXPR , readlink, readpipe EXPR , recv SOCKET,SCALAR,LENGTH,FLAGS , redo LABEL , redo, ref EXPR , ref, rename OLDNAME,NEWNAME , require VERSION , require EXPR, require, reset EXPR , reset, return EXPR , return, reverse LIST , rewinddir DIRHANDLE , rindex STR,SUBSTR,POSITION , rindex STR,SUBSTR, rmdir FILENAME , rmdir, s///, scalar EXPR , seek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE , seekdir DIRHANDLE,POS , select FILEHANDLE , select, select RBITS,WBITS,EBITS,TIMEOUT , semctl ID,SEMNUM,CMD,ARG , semget KEY,NSEMS,FLAGS , semop KEY,OPSTRING , send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS,TO , send SOCKET,MSG,FLAGS, setpgrp PID,PGRP , setpriority WHICH,WHO,PRIORITY , setsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME,OPTVAL , shift ARRAY , shift, shmctl ID,CMD,ARG , shmget KEY,SIZE,FLAGS , shmread ID,VAR,POS,SIZE , shmwrite ID,STRING,POS,SIZE, shutdown SOCKET,HOW , sin EXPR , sin, sleep EXPR , sleep, socket SOCKET,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL , socketpair SOCKET1,SOCKET2,DOMAIN,TYPE,PROTOCOL , sort SUBNAME LIST , sort BLOCK LIST, sort LIST, splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH,LIST , splice ARRAY,OFFSET,LENGTH, splice ARRAY,OFFSET, splice ARRAY, split /PATTERN/,EXPR,LIMIT , split /PATTERN/,EXPR, split /PATTERN/, split, sprintf FORMAT, LIST , format parameter index, flags, vector flag, (minimum) width, precision, or maximum width , size, order of arguments, sqrt EXPR , sqrt, srand EXPR , srand, stat FILEHANDLE , stat EXPR, stat, study SCALAR , study, sub NAME BLOCK , sub NAME (PROTO) BLOCK, sub NAME : ATTRS BLOCK, sub NAME (PROTO) : ATTRS BLOCK, substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH,REPLACEMENT , substr EXPR,OFFSET,LENGTH, substr EXPR,OFFSET, symlink OLDFILE,NEWFILE , syscall NUMBER, LIST , sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE , sysopen FILEHANDLE,FILENAME,MODE,PERMS, sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , sysread FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, sysseek FILEHANDLE,POSITION,WHENCE , system LIST , system PROGRAM LIST, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH,OFFSET , syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR,LENGTH, syswrite FILEHANDLE,SCALAR, tell FILEHANDLE , tell, telldir DIRHANDLE , tie VARIABLE,CLASSNAME,LIST , tied VARIABLE , time , times , tr///, truncate FILEHANDLE,LENGTH , truncate EXPR,LENGTH, uc EXPR , uc, ucfirst EXPR , ucfirst, umask EXPR , umask, undef EXPR , undef, unlink LIST , unlink, unpack TEMPLATE,EXPR , untie VARIABLE , unshift ARRAY,LIST , use Module VERSION LIST , use Module VERSION, use Module LIST, use Module, use VERSION, utime LIST , values HASH , vec EXPR,OFFSET,BITS , wait , waitpid PID,FLAGS , wantarray , warn LIST , write FILEHANDLE , write EXPR, write, y///

perlopentut - tutorial on opening things in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Open à la shell
Simple Opens
Indirect Filehandles
Pipe Opens
The Minus File
Mixing Reads and Writes
Filters
Open à la C
Permissions à la mode
Obscure Open Tricks
Re-Opening Files (dups)
Dispelling the Dweomer
Paths as Opens
Single Argument Open
Playing with STDIN and STDOUT
Other I/O Issues
Opening Non-File Files
Opening Named Pipes
Opening Sockets
Binary Files
File Locking
IO Layers
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
HISTORY

perlpacktut - tutorial on pack and unpack

DESCRIPTION
The Basic Principle
Packing Text
Packing Numbers
Integers
Unpacking a Stack Frame
How to Eat an Egg on a Net
Floating point Numbers
Exotic Templates
Bit Strings
Uuencoding
Doing Sums
Unicode
Another Portable Binary Encoding
Template Grouping
Lengths and Widths
String Lengths
Dynamic Templates
Counting Repetitions
Packing and Unpacking C Structures
The Alignment Pit
Alignment, Take 2
Alignment, Take 3
Pointers for How to Use Them
Pack Recipes
Funnies Section
Authors

perlpod - the Plain Old Documentation format

DESCRIPTION
Ordinary Paragraph
Verbatim Paragraph
Command Paragraph

=head1 Heading Text , =head2 Heading Text, =head3 Heading Text>, =head4 Heading Text, =over indentlevel , =item stuff..., =back, =cut , =pod , =begin formatname , =end formatname, =for formatname text..., =encoding encodingname

Formatting Codes

I<text> -- italic text <> >> , B<text> -- bold text <> >> , C<code> -- code text <> >> , L<name> -- a hyperlink <> >> , E<escape> -- a character escape <> >> , F<filename> -- used for filenames <> >> , S<text> -- text contains non-breaking spaces <> >> , X<topic name> -- an index entry <> >> , Z<> -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code <> >>

The Intent
Embedding Pods in Perl Modules
Hints for Writing Pod

SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlpodspec - Plain Old Documentation: format specification and notes

DESCRIPTION
Pod Definitions
Pod Commands

``=head1'', ``=head2'', ``=head3'', ``=head4'', ``=pod'', ``=cut'', ``=over'', ``=item'', ``=back'', ``=begin formatname'', ``=end formatname'', ``=for formatname text...'', ``=encoding encodingname''

Pod Formatting Codes

I<text> -- italic text, B<text> -- bold text, C<code> -- code text, F<filename> -- style for filenames, X<topic name> -- an index entry, Z<> -- a null (zero-effect) formatting code, L<name> -- a hyperlink, E<escape> -- a character escape, S<text> -- text contains non-breaking spaces

Notes on Implementing Pod Processors
About L<...> Codes

First:, Second:, Third:, Fourth:, Fifth:, Sixth:

About =over...=back Regions
About Data Paragraphs and ``=begin/=end'' Regions
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
#! and quoting on non-Unix systems

OS/2, MS-DOS, Win95/NT, Macintosh, VMS

Location of Perl
Command Switches

-0[octal/hexadecimal] , -a , -C [number/list] , -c , -d , -dt, -d:foo[=bar,baz] , -dt:foo[=bar,baz], -Dletters , -Dnumber, -e commandline , -f , -Fpattern , -h , -i[extension] , -Idirectory , -l[octnum] , -m[-]module , -M[-]module, -M[-]'module ...', -[mM][-]module=arg[,arg]..., -n , -p , -P , -s , -S , -t , -T , -u , -U , -v , -V , -V:configvar, -w , -W , -X , -x , -x directory

ENVIRONMENT

HOME , LOGDIR , PATH , PERL5LIB , PERL5OPT , PERLIO , :bytes , :crlf , :mmap , :perlio , :pop , :raw , :stdio , :unix , :utf8 , :win32 , PERLIO_DEBUG , PERLLIB , PERL5DB , PERL5DB_THREADED , PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port) , PERL_ALLOW_NON_IFS_LSP (specific to the Win32 port) , PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS , PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL , PERL_DL_NONLAZY , PERL_ENCODING , PERL_HASH_SEED , PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG , PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port) , PERL_SIGNALS , PERL_UNICODE , SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port)

perldiag - various Perl diagnostics

DESCRIPTION

perllexwarn - Perl Lexical Warnings

DESCRIPTION
Default Warnings and Optional Warnings
What's wrong with -w and $^W
Controlling Warnings from the Command Line

-w , -W , -X

Backward Compatibility
Category Hierarchy
Fatal Warnings
Reporting Warnings from a Module
TODO
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perldebug - Perl debugging

DESCRIPTION
The Perl Debugger
Debugger Commands

h , h [command], h h, p expr , x [maxdepth] expr , V [pkg [vars]] , X [vars] , y [level [vars]] , T , s [expr] , n [expr] , r , <CR>, c [line|sub] , l , l min+incr, l min-max, l line, l subname, - , v [line] , . , f filename , /pattern/, ?pattern?, L [abw] , S [[!]regex] , t , t expr , b , b [line] [condition] , b subname [condition] , b postpone subname [condition] , b load filename , b compile subname , B line , B * , a [line] command , A line , A * , w expr , W expr , W * , o , o booloption ... , o anyoption? ... , o option=value ... , < ? >, < [ command ] >, < * >, << command >, > ? >>, > command >>, > * >>, >> command > >>>, { ? , { [ command ], { * , {{ command , ! number , ! -number , ! pattern , !! cmd , source file , H -number , q or ^D , R , |dbcmd , ||dbcmd , command, m expr , M , man [manpage]

Configurable Options

recallCommand, ShellBang , pager , tkRunning , signalLevel, warnLevel, dieLevel , AutoTrace , LineInfo , inhibit_exit , PrintRet , ornaments , frame , maxTraceLen , windowSize , arrayDepth, hashDepth , dumpDepth , compactDump, veryCompact , globPrint , DumpDBFiles , DumpPackages , DumpReused , quote, HighBit, undefPrint , UsageOnly , TTY , noTTY , ReadLine , NonStop

Debugger input/output

Prompt, Multiline commands, Stack backtrace , Line Listing Format, Frame listing

Debugging compile-time statements
Debugger Customization
Readline Support
Editor Support for Debugging
The Perl Profiler
Debugging regular expressions
Debugging memory usage
SEE ALSO
BUGS

perlvar - Perl predefined variables

DESCRIPTION
Predefined Names

$ARG, $_, $a, $b, $<digits>, $MATCH, $&, $PREMATCH, $`, $POSTMATCH, $', $LAST_PAREN_MATCH, $+, $^N, @LAST_MATCH_END, @+, $*, HANDLE->input_line_number(EXPR), $INPUT_LINE_NUMBER, $NR, $, IO::Handle->input_record_separator(EXPR), $INPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $RS, $/, HANDLE->autoflush(EXPR), $OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH, $|, IO::Handle->output_field_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_FIELD_SEPARATOR, $OFS, $,, IO::Handle->output_record_separator EXPR, $OUTPUT_RECORD_SEPARATOR, $ORS, $\, $LIST_SEPARATOR, $``, $SUBSCRIPT_SEPARATOR, $SUBSEP, $;, $#, HANDLE->format_page_number(EXPR), $FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER, $%, HANDLE->format_lines_per_page(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE, $=, HANDLE->format_lines_left(EXPR), $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT, $-, @LAST_MATCH_START, @-, $` is the same as substr($var, 0, $-[0]), $& is the same as substr($var, $-[0], $+[0] - $-[0]), $' is the same as substr($var, $+[0]), $1 is the same as substr($var, $-[1], $+[1] - $-[1]), $2 is the same as substr($var, $-[2], $+[2] - $-[2]), $3 is the same as substr($var, $-[3], $+[3] - $-[3]), HANDLE->format_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_NAME, $~, HANDLE->format_top_name(EXPR), $FORMAT_TOP_NAME, $^, IO::Handle->format_line_break_characters EXPR, $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS, $:, IO::Handle->format_formfeed EXPR, $FORMAT_FORMFEED, $^L, $ACCUMULATOR, $^A, $CHILD_ERROR, $?, ${^ENCODING}, $OS_ERROR, $ERRNO, $!, %!, $EXTENDED_OS_ERROR, $^E, $EVAL_ERROR, $@, $PROCESS_ID, $PID, $$, $REAL_USER_ID, $UID, $<, $EFFECTIVE_USER_ID, $EUID, $>, $REAL_GROUP_ID, $GID, $(, $EFFECTIVE_GROUP_ID, $EGID, $), $PROGRAM_NAME, $0, $[, $], $COMPILING, $^C, $DEBUGGING, $^D, $SYSTEM_FD_MAX, $^F, $^H, %^H, $INPLACE_EDIT, $^I, $^M, $OSNAME, $^O, ${^OPEN}, $PERLDB, $^P, 0x01, 0x02, 0x04, 0x08, 0x10, 0x20, 0x40, 0x80, 0x100, 0x200, 0x400, $LAST_REGEXP_CODE_RESULT, $^R, $EXCEPTIONS_BEING_CAUGHT, $^S, $BASETIME, $^T, ${^TAINT}, ${^UNICODE}, ${^UTF8LOCALE}, $PERL_VERSION, $^V, $WARNING, $^W, ${^WARNING_BITS}, $EXECUTABLE_NAME, $^X, ARGV, $ARGV, @ARGV, ARGVOUT, @F, @INC, @_, %INC, %ENV, $ENV{expr}, %SIG, $SIG{expr}

Error Indicators
Technical Note on the Syntax of Variable Names
BUGS

perlre - Perl regular expressions

DESCRIPTION

i , m , s , x

Regular Expressions

[1], [2], [3], cntrl , graph , print , punct , xdigit

Extended Patterns

(?#text) , (?imsx-imsx) , (?:pattern) , (?imsx-imsx:pattern), (?=pattern) , (?!pattern) , (?<=pattern) , (?<!pattern) , (?{ code }) , (??{ code }) , (?>pattern) , (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern) , (?(condition)yes-pattern)

Backtracking
Version 8 Regular Expressions
Warning on \1 vs $1
Repeated patterns matching zero-length substring
Combining pieces together

ST, S|T, S{REPEAT_COUNT}, S{min,max}, S{min,max}?, S?, S*, S+, S??, S*?, S+?, (?>S), (?=S), (?<=S), (?!S), (?<!S), (??{ EXPR }), (?(condition)yes-pattern|no-pattern)

Creating custom RE engines
BUGS
SEE ALSO

perlreref - Perl Regular Expressions Reference

DESCRIPTION
OPERATORS
SYNTAX
ESCAPE SEQUENCES
CHARACTER CLASSES
ANCHORS
QUANTIFIERS
EXTENDED CONSTRUCTS
VARIABLES
FUNCTIONS
TERMINOLOGY
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO
THANKS

perlref - Perl references and nested data structures

NOTE
DESCRIPTION
Making References

1. , 2. , 3. , 4. , 5. , 6. , 7.

Using References

2. , 3. >> , 4.

Symbolic references
Not-so-symbolic references
Pseudo-hashes: Using an array as a hash
Function Templates
WARNING
SEE ALSO

perlform - Perl formats

DESCRIPTION
Text Fields
Numeric Fields
The Field @* for Variable Width Multi-Line Text
The Field ^* for Variable Width One-line-at-a-time Text
Specifying Values
Using Fill Mode
Suppressing Lines Where All Fields Are Void
Repeating Format Lines
Top of Form Processing
Format Variables
NOTES
Footers
Accessing Formatting Internals
WARNINGS

perlobj - Perl objects

DESCRIPTION
An Object is Simply a Reference
A Class is Simply a Package
A Method is Simply a Subroutine
Method Invocation >>
Indirect Object Syntax
Default UNIVERSAL methods

isa(CLASS) , can(METHOD) , VERSION( [NEED] )

Destructors
Summary
Two-Phased Garbage Collection
SEE ALSO

perltie - how to hide an object class in a simple variable

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Tying Scalars

TIESCALAR classname, LIST , FETCH this , STORE this, value , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying Arrays

TIEARRAY classname, LIST , FETCH this, index , STORE this, index, value , FETCHSIZE this , STORESIZE this, count , EXTEND this, count , EXISTS this, key , DELETE this, key , CLEAR this , PUSH this, LIST , POP this , SHIFT this , UNSHIFT this, LIST , SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying Hashes

USER, HOME, CLOBBER, LIST, TIEHASH classname, LIST , FETCH this, key , STORE this, key, value , DELETE this, key , CLEAR this , EXISTS this, key , FIRSTKEY this , NEXTKEY this, lastkey , SCALAR this , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

Tying FileHandles

TIEHANDLE classname, LIST , WRITE this, LIST , PRINT this, LIST , PRINTF this, LIST , READ this, LIST , READLINE this , GETC this , CLOSE this , UNTIE this , DESTROY this

UNTIE this
The untie Gotcha
SEE ALSO
BUGS
AUTHOR

perldbmfilter - Perl DBM Filters

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION

filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value

The Filter
An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
Another Example -- Key is a C int.
SEE ALSO
AUTHOR

perlipc - Perl interprocess communication (signals, fifos, pipes, safe subprocesses, sockets, and semaphores)

DESCRIPTION
Signals
Handling the SIGHUP Signal in Daemons
Named Pipes
Deferred Signals (Safe Signals)

Long running opcodes, Interrupting IO, Restartable system calls, Signals as ``faults'', Signals triggered by operating system state

Using open() for IPC
Filehandles
Background Processes
Complete Dissociation of Child from Parent
Safe Pipe Opens
Bidirectional Communication with Another Process
Bidirectional Communication with Yourself
Sockets: Client/Server Communication
Internet Line Terminators
Internet TCP Clients and Servers
Unix-Domain TCP Clients and Servers
TCP Clients with IO::Socket
A Simple Client

Proto, PeerAddr, PeerPort

A Webget Client
Interactive Client with IO::Socket
TCP Servers with IO::Socket

Proto, LocalPort, Listen, Reuse

UDP: Message Passing
SysV IPC
NOTES
BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlfork - Perl's fork() emulation

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Behavior of other Perl features in forked pseudo-processes

$$ or $PROCESS_ID, %ENV, chdir() and all other builtins that accept filenames, wait() and waitpid(), kill(), exec(), exit(), Open handles to files, directories and network sockets

Resource limits
Killing the parent process
Lifetime of the parent process and pseudo-processes
CAVEATS AND LIMITATIONS

BEGIN blocks, Open filehandles, Forking pipe open() not yet implemented, Global state maintained by XSUBs, Interpreter embedded in larger application, Thread-safety of extensions

BUGS
AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlnumber - semantics of numbers and numeric operations in Perl

SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Storing numbers
Numeric operators and numeric conversions
Flavors of Perl numeric operations

Arithmetic operators, ++, Arithmetic operators during use integer, Other mathematical operators, Bitwise operators, Bitwise operators during use integer, Operators which expect an integer, Operators which expect a string

AUTHOR
SEE ALSO

perlthrtut - tutorial on threads in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Status
What Is A Thread Anyway?
Threaded Program Models
Boss/Worker
Work Crew
Pipeline
What kind of threads are Perl threads?
Thread-Safe Modules
Thread Basics
Basic Thread Support
A Note about the Examples
Creating Threads
Waiting For A Thread To Exit
Ignoring A Thread
Threads And Data
Shared And Unshared Data
Thread Pitfalls: Races
Synchronization and control
Controlling access: lock()
A Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
Queues: Passing Data Around
Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access
Basic semaphores
Advanced Semaphores
cond_wait() and cond_signal()
Giving up control
General Thread Utility Routines
What Thread Am I In?
Thread IDs
Are These Threads The Same?
What Threads Are Running?
A Complete Example
Different implementations of threads
Performance considerations
Process-scope Changes
Thread-Safety of System Libraries
Conclusion
Bibliography
Introductory Texts
OS-Related References
Other References
Acknowledgements
AUTHOR
Copyrights

perlothrtut - old tutorial on threads in Perl

DESCRIPTION
What Is A Thread Anyway?
Threaded Program Models
Boss/Worker
Work Crew
Pipeline
Native threads
What kind of threads are perl threads?
Threadsafe Modules
Thread Basics
Basic Thread Support
Creating Threads
Giving up control
Waiting For A Thread To Exit
Errors In Threads
Ignoring A Thread
Threads And Data
Shared And Unshared Data
Thread Pitfall: Races
Controlling access: lock()
Thread Pitfall: Deadlocks
Queues: Passing Data Around
Threads And Code
Semaphores: Synchronizing Data Access

Basic semaphores, Advanced Semaphores

Attributes: Restricting Access To Subroutines
Subroutine Locks
Methods
Locking A Subroutine
General Thread Utility Routines
What Thread Am I In?
Thread IDs
Are These Threads The Same?
What Threads Are Running?
A Complete Example
Conclusion
Bibliography
Introductory Texts
OS-Related References
Other References
Acknowledgements
AUTHOR
Copyrights

perlport - Writing portable Perl

DESCRIPTION

Not all Perl programs have to be portable, Nearly all of Perl already is portable

ISSUES
Newlines
Numbers endianness and Width
Files and Filesystems
System Interaction
Command names versus file pathnames
Networking
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
External Subroutines (XS)
Standard Modules
Time and Date
Character sets and character encoding
Internationalisation
System Resources
Security
Style
CPAN Testers
PLATFORMS
Unix
DOS and Derivatives
Mac OS
VMS
VOS
EBCDIC Platforms
Acorn RISC OS
Other perls
FUNCTION IMPLEMENTATIONS
Alphabetical Listing of Perl Functions

-X, atan2 Y,X, atan2, binmode, chmod, chown, chroot, crypt, dbmclose, dbmopen, dump, exec, exit, fcntl, flock, fork, getlogin, getpgrp, getppid, getpriority, getpwnam, getgrnam, getnetbyname, getpwuid, getgrgid, getnetbyaddr, getprotobynumber, getservbyport, getpwent, getgrent, gethostbyname, gethostent, getnetent, getprotoent, getservent, sethostent, setnetent, setprotoent, setservent, endpwent, endgrent, endhostent, endnetent, endprotoent, endservent, getsockopt SOCKET,LEVEL,OPTNAME, glob, gmtime, ioctl FILEHANDLE,FUNCTION,SCALAR, kill, link, localtime, lstat, msgctl, msgget, msgsnd, msgrcv, open, pipe, readlink, rename, select, semctl, semget, semop, setgrent, setpgrp, setpriority, setpwent, setsockopt, shmctl, shmget, shmread, shmwrite, sockatmark, socketpair, stat, symlink, syscall, sysopen, system, times, truncate, umask, utime, wait, waitpid

Supported Platforms
SEE ALSO
AUTHORS / CONTRIBUTORS

perllocale - Perl locale handling (internationalization and localization)

DESCRIPTION
PREPARING TO USE LOCALES
USING LOCALES
The use locale pragma
The setlocale function
Finding locales
LOCALE PROBLEMS
Temporarily fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing locale problems
Permanently fixing your system's locale configuration
Fixing system locale configuration
The localeconv function
I18N::Langinfo
LOCALE CATEGORIES
Category LC_COLLATE: Collation
Category LC_CTYPE: Character Types
Category LC_NUMERIC: Numeric Formatting
Category LC_MONETARY: Formatting of monetary amounts
LC_TIME
Other categories
SECURITY
ENVIRONMENT

PERL_BADLANG, LC_ALL, LANGUAGE, LC_CTYPE, LC_COLLATE, LC_MONETARY, LC_NUMERIC, LC_TIME, LANG

NOTES
Backward compatibility
I18N:Collate obsolete
Sort speed and memory use impacts
write() and LC_NUMERIC
Freely available locale definitions
I18n and l10n
An imperfect standard
Unicode and UTF-8
BUGS
Broken systems
SEE ALSO
HISTORY

perluniintro - Perl Unicode introduction

DESCRIPTION
Unicode
Perl's Unicode Support
Perl's Unicode Model
Unicode and EBCDIC
Creating Unicode
Handling Unicode
Legacy Encodings
Unicode I/O
Displaying Unicode As Text
Special Cases
Advanced Topics
Miscellaneous
Questions With Answers
Hexadecimal Notation
Further Resources
UNICODE IN OLDER PERLS
SEE ALSO
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT, AND LICENSE

perlunicode - Unicode support in Perl

DESCRIPTION
Important Caveats

Input and Output Layers, Regular Expressions, use utf8 still needed to enable UTF-8/UTF-EBCDIC in scripts, BOM-marked scripts and UTF-16 scripts autodetected, use encoding needed to upgrade non-Latin-1 byte strings

Byte and Character Semantics
Effects of Character Semantics
Scripts
Blocks
User-Defined Character Properties
Character Encodings for Input and Output
Unicode Regular Expression Support Level
Unicode Encodings
Security Implications of Unicode
Unicode in Perl on EBCDIC
Locales
When Unicode Does Not Happen
Forcing Unicode in Perl (Or Unforcing Unicode in Perl)
Using Unicode in XS
BUGS
Interaction with Locales
Interaction with Extensions
Speed
Porting code from perl-5.6.X
SEE ALSO

perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

DESCRIPTION
COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
ASCII
ISO 8859
Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
EBCDIC
  • variant characters
  • POSIX-BC
    Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
    Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
    Unicode and UTF
    Using Encode
  • SINGLE OCTET TABLES

    recipe 0, recipe 1, recipe 2, recipe 3, recipe 4, recipe 5, recipe 6

    IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
    CONVERSIONS
    tr///
    iconv
    C RTL
    OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
    FUNCTION DIFFERENCES

    chr(), ord(), pack(), print(), printf(), sort(), sprintf(), unpack()

    REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
    SOCKETS
    SORTING
    Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
    MONO CASE then sort data.
    Convert, sort data, then re convert.
    Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
    TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
    URL decoding and encoding
    uu encoding and decoding
    Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
    Caesarian ciphers
    Hashing order and checksums
    I18N AND L10N
    MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS
    OS ISSUES
    OS/400

    PASE, IFS access

    OS/390, z/OS

    chcp, dataset access, OS/390, z/OS iconv, locales

    VM/ESA?
    POSIX-BC?
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    REFERENCES
    HISTORY
    AUTHOR

    perlsec - Perl security

    DESCRIPTION
    Laundering and Detecting Tainted Data
    Switches On the ``#!'' Line
    Taint mode and @INC
    Cleaning Up Your Path
    Security Bugs
    Protecting Your Programs
    Unicode
    Algorithmic Complexity Attacks
    SEE ALSO

    perlmod - Perl modules (packages and symbol tables)

    DESCRIPTION
    Packages
    Symbol Tables
    BEGIN, CHECK, INIT and END
    Perl Classes
    Perl Modules
    Making your module threadsafe
    SEE ALSO

    perlmodlib - constructing new Perl modules and finding existing ones

    THE PERL MODULE LIBRARY
    Pragmatic Modules

    assertions::compat, attributes, attrs, autouse, base, bigint, bignum, bigrat, blib, bytes, charnames, constant, diagnostics, encoding, fields, filetest, if, integer, less, lib, locale, open, ops, overload, re, sigtrap, sort, strict, subs, threads, threads::shared, utf8, vars, vmsish, warnings, warnings::register

    Standard Modules

    AnyDBM_File, Archive::Tar, Archive::Tar::File, Attribute::Handlers, AutoLoader, AutoSplit, B, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref, Benchmark, ByteLoader, CGI, CGI::Apache, CGI::Carp, CGI::Cookie, CGI::Fast, CGI::Pretty, CGI::Push, CGI::Switch, CGI::Util, CPAN, CPAN::FirstTime, CPAN::Nox, Carp, Carp::Heavy, Class::ISA, Class::Struct, Compress::Zlib, Config, Cwd, DB, DB_File, Data::Dumper, Devel::DProf, Devel::PPPort, Devel::Peek, Devel::SelfStubber, Digest, Digest::MD5, Digest::base, DirHandle, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, Encode, Encode::Alias, Encode::Byte, Encode::CJKConstants, Encode::CN, Encode::CN::HZ, Encode::Config, Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Encoder, Encode::Encoding, Encode::Guess, Encode::JP, Encode::JP::H2Z, Encode::JP::JIS7, Encode::KR, Encode::KR::2022_KR, Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::PerlIO, Encode::Supported, Encode::Symbol, Encode::TW, Encode::Unicode, Encode::Unicode::UTF7, English, Env, Errno, Exporter, Exporter::Heavy, ExtUtils::CBuilder, ExtUtils::CBuilder::Platform::Windows, ExtUtils::Command, ExtUtils::Command::MM, ExtUtils::Constant, ExtUtils::Embed, ExtUtils::Install, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Liblist, ExtUtils::MM, ExtUtils::MM_AIX, ExtUtils::MM_Any, ExtUtils::MM_BeOS, ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin, ExtUtils::MM_DOS, ExtUtils::MM_MacOS, ExtUtils::MM_NW5, ExtUtils::MM_OS2, ExtUtils::MM_QNX, ExtUtils::MM_UWIN, ExtUtils::MM_Unix, ExtUtils::MM_VMS, ExtUtils::MM_VOS, ExtUtils::MM_Win32, ExtUtils::MM_Win95, ExtUtils::MY, ExtUtils::MakeMaker, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes, ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish, ExtUtils::Manifest, ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap, ExtUtils::Mksymlists, ExtUtils::Packlist, ExtUtils::ParseXS, ExtUtils::testlib, Fatal, Fcntl, File::Basename, File::CheckTree, File::Compare, File::Copy, File::DosGlob, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Path, File::Spec, File::Spec::Cygwin, File::Spec::Epoc, File::Spec::Functions, File::Spec::Mac, File::Spec::OS2, File::Spec::Unix, File::Spec::VMS, File::Spec::Win32, File::Temp, File::stat, FileCache, FileHandle, Filter::Simple, Filter::Util::Call, FindBin, GDBM_File, Getopt::Long, Getopt::Std, Hash::Util, I18N::Collate, I18N::LangTags, I18N::LangTags::List, I18N::Langinfo, IO, IO::Dir, IO::File, IO::Handle, IO::Pipe, IO::Poll, IO::Seekable, IO::Select, IO::Socket, IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::UNIX, IO::Zlib, IPC::Open2, IPC::Open3, IPC::SysV, IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::SysV::Semaphore, List::Util, Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, Locale::Language, Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::TPJ13, Locale::Script, MIME::Base64, MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigInt::Calc, Math::BigInt::FastCalc, Math::BigRat, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Memoize, Memoize::AnyDBM_File, Memoize::Expire, Memoize::ExpireFile, Memoize::ExpireTest, Memoize::NDBM_File, Memoize::SDBM_File, Memoize::Storable, NDBM_File, NEXT, Net::Cmd, Net::Config, Net::Domain, Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Netrc, Net::POP3, Net::Ping, Net::SMTP, Net::Time, Net::hostent, Net::libnetFAQ, Net::netent, Net::protoent, Net::servent, O, ODBM_File, Opcode, POSIX, PerlIO, PerlIO::encoding, PerlIO::scalar, PerlIO::via, PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint, Pod::Checker, Pod::Find, Pod::Functions, Pod::Html, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Man, Pod::ParseLink, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Parser, Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker, Pod::Perldoc::ToMan, Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff, Pod::Perldoc::ToPod, Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf, Pod::Perldoc::ToText, Pod::Perldoc::ToTk, Pod::Perldoc::ToXml, Pod::PlainText, Pod::Plainer, Pod::Select, Pod::Text, Pod::Text::Color, Pod::Text::Overstrike, Pod::Text::Termcap, Pod::Usage, SDBM_File, Safe, Scalar::Util, Search::Dict, SelectSaver, SelfLoader, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Symbol, Sys::Hostname, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Term::Cap, Term::Complete, Term::ReadLine, Test, Test::Builder, Test::Harness, Test::Harness::Assert, Test::Harness::Iterator, Test::Harness::Point, Test::Harness::Straps, Test::More, Test::Simple, Test::Tutorial, Text::Abbrev, Text::Balanced, Text::ParseWords, Text::Soundex, Text::Tabs, Text::Wrap, Thread, Thread::Queue, Thread::Semaphore, Thread::Signal, Thread::Specific, Tie::Array, Tie::File, Tie::Handle, Tie::Hash, Tie::Memoize, Tie::RefHash, Tie::Scalar, Tie::SubstrHash, Time::HiRes, Time::Local, Time::gmtime, Time::localtime, Time::tm, UNIVERSAL, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Unicode::UCD, User::grent, User::pwent, Win32, XS::APItest, XS::Typemap, XSLoader

    Extension Modules
    CPAN
    Africa

    South Africa

    Asia

    China, Indonesia, Israel, Japan, Malaysia, Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand

    Central America

    Costa Rica

    Europe

    Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom

    North America

    Canada, Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Mexico, United States, Alabama, California, Colorado, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin

    Oceania

    Australia, New Zealand, United States

    South America

    Argentina, Brazil, Chile

    RSYNC Mirrors
    Modules: Creation, Use, and Abuse
    Guidelines for Module Creation
    Guidelines for Converting Perl 4 Library Scripts into Modules
    Guidelines for Reusing Application Code
    NOTE

    perlmodstyle - Perl module style guide

    INTRODUCTION
    QUICK CHECKLIST
    Before you start
    The API
    Stability
    Documentation
    Release considerations
    BEFORE YOU START WRITING A MODULE
    Has it been done before?
    Do one thing and do it well
    What's in a name?
    DESIGNING AND WRITING YOUR MODULE
    To OO or not to OO?
    Designing your API

    Write simple routines to do simple things, Separate functionality from output, Provide sensible shortcuts and defaults, Naming conventions, Parameter passing

    Strictness and warnings
    Backwards compatibility
    Error handling and messages
    DOCUMENTING YOUR MODULE
    POD
    README, INSTALL, release notes, changelogs

    perl Makefile.PL, make, make test, make install, perl Build.PL, perl Build, perl Build test, perl Build install

    RELEASE CONSIDERATIONS
    Version numbering
    Pre-requisites
    Testing
    Packaging
    Licensing
    COMMON PITFALLS
    Reinventing the wheel
    Trying to do too much
    Inappropriate documentation
    SEE ALSO

    the perlstyle manpage, the perlnewmod manpage, the perlpod manpage, podchecker, Packaging Tools, Testing tools, http://pause.perl.org/, Any good book on software engineering

    AUTHOR

    perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

    DESCRIPTION
    PREAMBLE

    DECOMPRESS the file, UNPACK the file into a directory, BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary), INSTALL the module

    PORTABILITY
    HEY
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    perlnewmod - preparing a new module for distribution

    DESCRIPTION
    Warning
    What should I make into a module?
    Step-by-step: Preparing the ground

    Look around, Check it's new, Discuss the need, Choose a name, Check again

    Step-by-step: Making the module

    Start with module-starter or h2xs, Use strict and warnings, Use Carp, Use Exporter - wisely!, Use plain old documentation, Write tests, Write the README

    Step-by-step: Distributing your module

    Get a CPAN user ID, perl Makefile.PL; make test; make dist, Upload the tarball, Announce to the modules list, Announce to clpa, Fix bugs!

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perlutil - utilities packaged with the Perl distribution

    DESCRIPTION
    DOCUMENTATION

    perldoc, pod2man and pod2text, pod2html and pod2latex, pod2usage, podselect, podchecker, splain, roffitall

    CONVERTORS

    a2p, s2p, find2perl

    Administration

    libnetcfg

    Development

    perlbug, h2ph, c2ph and pstruct, h2xs, dprofpp, perlcc

    SEE ALSO

    perlcompile - Introduction to the Perl Compiler-Translator

    DESCRIPTION
    Layout

    B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Lint, B::Deparse, B::Xref

    Using The Back Ends
    The Cross Referencing Back End

    i, &, s, r

    The Decompiling Back End
    The Lint Back End
    The Simple C Back End
    The Bytecode Back End
    The Optimized C Back End
    Module List for the Compiler Suite

    B, O, B::Asmdata, B::Assembler, B::Bblock, B::Bytecode, B::C, B::CC, B::Concise, B::Debug, B::Deparse, B::Disassembler, B::Lint, B::Showlex, B::Stackobj, B::Stash, B::Terse, B::Xref

    KNOWN PROBLEMS
    AUTHOR

    perlfilter - Source Filters

    DESCRIPTION
    CONCEPTS
    USING FILTERS
    WRITING A SOURCE FILTER
    WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN C

    Decryption Filters

    CREATING A SOURCE FILTER AS A SEPARATE EXECUTABLE
    WRITING A SOURCE FILTER IN PERL
    USING CONTEXT: THE DEBUG FILTER
    CONCLUSION
    THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR

    Some Filters Clobber the DATA Handle

    REQUIREMENTS
    AUTHOR
    Copyrights

    perlglossary - Perl Glossary

    DESCRIPTION
    A

    accessor methods, actual arguments, address operator, algorithm, alias, alternatives, anonymous, architecture, argument, ARGV, arithmetical operator, array, array context, ASCII, assertion, assignment, assignment operator, associative array, associativity, asynchronous, atom, atomic operation, attribute, autogeneration, autoincrement, autoload, autosplit, autovivification, AV, awk

    B

    backreference, backtracking, backward compatibility, bareword, base class, big-endian, binary, binary operator, bind, bit, bit shift, bit string, bless, block, BLOCK, block buffering, Boolean, Boolean context, breakpoint, broadcast, BSD, bucket, buffer, built-in, bundle, byte, bytecode

    C

    C, C preprocessor, call by reference, call by value, callback, canonical, capturing, character, character class, character property, circumfix operator, class, class method, client, cloister, closure, cluster, CODE, code generator, code subpattern, collating sequence, command, command buffering, command name, command-line arguments, comment, compilation unit, compile phase, compile time, compiler, composer, concatenation, conditional, connection, construct, constructor, context, continuation, core dump, CPAN, cracker, current package, current working directory, currently selected output channel, CV

    D

    dangling statement, data structure, data type, datagram, DBM, declaration, decrement, default, defined, delimiter, dereference, derived class, descriptor, destroy, destructor, device, directive, directory, directory handle, dispatch, distribution, dweomer, dwimmer, dynamic scoping

    E

    eclectic, element, embedding, empty subclass test, en passant, encapsulation, endian, environment, environment variable, EOF, errno, error, escape sequence, exception, exception handling, exec, executable file, execute, execute bit, exit status, export, expression, extension

    F

    false, FAQ, fatal error, field, FIFO, file, file descriptor, file test operator, fileglob, filehandle, filename, filesystem, filter, flag, floating point, flush, FMTEYEWTK, fork, formal arguments, format, freely available, freely redistributable, freeware, function, funny character, garbage collection

    G

    GID, glob, global, global destruction, glue language, granularity, greedy, grep, group, GV

    H

    hacker, handler, hard reference, hash, hash table, header file, here document, hexadecimal, home directory, host, hubris, HV

    I

    identifier, impatience, implementation, import, increment, indexing, indirect filehandle, indirect object, indirect object slot, indirection, infix, inheritance, instance, instance variable, integer, interface, interpolation, interpreter, invocant, invocation, I/O, IO, IP, IPC, is-a, iteration, iterator, IV

    J

    JAPH

    K

    key, keyword

    L

    label, laziness, left shift, leftmost longest, lexeme, lexer, lexical analysis, lexical scoping, lexical variable, library, LIFO, line, line buffering, line number, link, LIST, list, list context, list operator, list value, literal, little-endian, local, logical operator, lookahead, lookbehind, loop, loop control statement, loop label, lvaluable, lvalue, lvalue modifier

    M

    magic, magical increment, magical variables, Makefile, man, manpage, matching, member data, memory, metacharacter, metasymbol, method, minimalism, mode, modifier, module, modulus, monger, mortal, multidimensional array, multiple inheritance

    N

    named pipe, namespace, network address, newline, NFS, null character, null list, null string, numeric context, NV, nybble

    O

    object, octal, offset, one-liner, open source software, operand, operating system, operator, operator overloading, options, overloading, overriding, owner

    P

    package, pad, parameter, parent class, parse tree, parsing, patch, PATH, pathname, pattern, pattern matching, permission bits, Pern, pipe, pipeline, platform, pod, pointer, polymorphism, port, portable, porter, POSIX, postfix, pp, pragma, precedence, prefix, preprocessing, procedure, process, program generator, progressive matching, property, protocol, prototype, pseudofunction, pseudohash, pseudoliteral, public domain, pumpkin, pumpking, PV

    Q

    qualified, quantifier

    R

    readable, reaping, record, recursion, reference, referent, regex, regular expression, regular expression modifier, regular file, relational operator, reserved words, return value, RFC, right shift, root, RTFM, run phase, run time, run-time pattern, RV, rvalue

    S

    scalar, scalar context, scalar literal, scalar value, scalar variable, scope, scratchpad, script, script kiddie, sed, semaphore, separator, serialization, server, service, setgid, setuid, shared memory, shebang, shell, side effects, signal, signal handler, single inheritance, slice, slurp, socket, soft reference, source filter, stack, standard, standard error, standard I/O, standard input, standard output, stat structure, statement, statement modifier, static, static method, static scoping, static variable, status, STDERR, STDIN, STDIO, STDOUT, stream, string, string context, stringification, struct, structure, subclass, subpattern, subroutine, subscript, substitution, substring, superclass, superuser, SV, switch, switch cluster, switch statement, symbol, symbol table, symbolic debugger, symbolic link, symbolic reference, synchronous, syntactic sugar, syntax, syntax tree, syscall

    T

    tainted, TCP, term, terminator, ternary, text, thread, tie, TMTOWTDI, token, tokener, tokenizing, toolbox approach, transliterate, trigger, trinary, troff, true, truncating, type, type casting, typed lexical, typedef, typeglob, typemap

    U

    UDP, UID, umask, unary operator, Unicode, Unix

    V

    value, variable, variable interpolation, variadic, vector, virtual, void context, v-string

    W

    warning, watch expression, whitespace, word, working directory, wrapper, WYSIWYG

    X

    XS, XSUB

    Y

    yacc

    Z

    zero width, zombie

    AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

    perlembed - how to embed perl in your C program

    DESCRIPTION
    PREAMBLE

    Use C from Perl?, Use a Unix program from Perl?, Use Perl from Perl?, Use C from C?, Use Perl from C?

    ROADMAP
    Compiling your C program
    Adding a Perl interpreter to your C program
    Calling a Perl subroutine from your C program
    Evaluating a Perl statement from your C program
    Performing Perl pattern matches and substitutions from your C program
    Fiddling with the Perl stack from your C program
    Maintaining a persistent interpreter
    Execution of END blocks
    Maintaining multiple interpreter instances
    Using Perl modules, which themselves use C libraries, from your C program
    Embedding Perl under Win32
    Hiding Perl_
    MORAL
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    perldebguts - Guts of Perl debugging

    DESCRIPTION
    Debugger Internals
    Writing Your Own Debugger
    Frame Listing Output Examples
    Debugging regular expressions
    Compile-time output

    anchored STRING at POS, floating STRING at POS1..POS2, matching floating/anchored, minlen, stclass TYPE, noscan, isall, GPOS, plus, implicit, with eval, anchored(TYPE)

    Types of nodes
    Run-time output
    Debugging Perl memory usage
    Using $ENV{PERL_DEBUG_MSTATS}

    buckets SMALLEST(APPROX)..GREATEST(APPROX), Free/Used, Total sbrk(): SBRKed/SBRKs:CONTINUOUS, pad: 0, heads: 2192, chain: 0, tail: 6144

    SEE ALSO

    perlxstut, perlXStut - Tutorial for writing XSUBs

    DESCRIPTION
    SPECIAL NOTES
    make
    Version caveat
    Dynamic Loading versus Static Loading
    TUTORIAL
    EXAMPLE 1
    EXAMPLE 2
    What has gone on?
    Writing good test scripts
    EXAMPLE 3
    What's new here?
    Input and Output Parameters
    The XSUBPP Program
    The TYPEMAP file
    Warning about Output Arguments
    EXAMPLE 4
    What has happened here?
    Anatomy of .xs file
    Getting the fat out of XSUBs
    More about XSUB arguments
    The Argument Stack
    Extending your Extension
    Documenting your Extension
    Installing your Extension
    EXAMPLE 5
    New Things in this Example
    EXAMPLE 6
    New Things in this Example
    EXAMPLE 7 (Coming Soon)
    EXAMPLE 8 (Coming Soon)
    EXAMPLE 9 Passing open files to XSes
    Troubleshooting these Examples
    See also
    Author
    Last Changed

    perlxs - XS language reference manual

    DESCRIPTION
    Introduction
    On The Road
    The Anatomy of an XSUB
    The Argument Stack
    The RETVAL Variable
    Returning SVs, AVs and HVs through RETVAL
    The MODULE Keyword
    The PACKAGE Keyword
    The PREFIX Keyword
    The OUTPUT: Keyword
    The NO_OUTPUT Keyword
    The CODE: Keyword
    The INIT: Keyword
    The NO_INIT Keyword
    Initializing Function Parameters
    Default Parameter Values
    The PREINIT: Keyword
    The SCOPE: Keyword
    The INPUT: Keyword
    The IN/OUTLIST/IN_OUTLIST/OUT/IN_OUT Keywords
    The length(NAME) Keyword
    Variable-length Parameter Lists
    The C_ARGS: Keyword
    The PPCODE: Keyword
    Returning Undef And Empty Lists
    The REQUIRE: Keyword
    The CLEANUP: Keyword
    The POSTCALL: Keyword
    The BOOT: Keyword
    The VERSIONCHECK: Keyword
    The PROTOTYPES: Keyword
    The PROTOTYPE: Keyword
    The ALIAS: Keyword
    The OVERLOAD: Keyword
    The FALLBACK: Keyword
    The INTERFACE: Keyword
    The INTERFACE_MACRO: Keyword
    The INCLUDE: Keyword
    The CASE: Keyword
    The & Unary Operator
    Inserting POD, Comments and C Preprocessor Directives
    Using XS With C++
    Interface Strategy
    Perl Objects And C Structures
    The Typemap
    Safely Storing Static Data in XS

    MY_CXT_KEY, typedef my_cxt_t, START_MY_CXT, MY_CXT_INIT, dMY_CXT, MY_CXT

    EXAMPLES
    XS VERSION
    AUTHOR

    perlclib - Internal replacements for standard C library functions

    DESCRIPTION
    Conventions

    t, p, n, s

    File Operations
    File Input and Output
    File Positioning
    Memory Management and String Handling
    Character Class Tests
    stdlib.h functions
    Miscellaneous functions
    SEE ALSO

    perlguts - Introduction to the Perl API

    DESCRIPTION
    Variables
    Datatypes
    What is an ``IV''?
    Working with SVs
    Offsets
    What's Really Stored in an SV?
    Working with AVs
    Working with HVs
    Hash API Extensions
    AVs, HVs and undefined values
    References
    Blessed References and Class Objects
    Creating New Variables

    GV_ADDMULTI, GV_ADDWARN

    Reference Counts and Mortality
    Stashes and Globs
    Double-Typed SVs
    Magic Variables
    Assigning Magic
    Magic Virtual Tables
    Finding Magic
    Understanding the Magic of Tied Hashes and Arrays
    Localizing changes

    SAVEINT(int i), SAVEIV(IV i), SAVEI32(I32 i), SAVELONG(long i), SAVESPTR(s), SAVEPPTR(p), SAVEFREESV(SV *sv), SAVEMORTALIZESV(SV *sv), SAVEFREEOP(OP *op), SAVEFREEPV(p), SAVECLEARSV(SV *sv), SAVEDELETE(HV *hv, char *key, I32 length), SAVEDESTRUCTOR(DESTRUCTORFUNC_NOCONTEXT_t f, void *p), SAVEDESTRUCTOR_X(DESTRUCTORFUNC_t f, void *p), SAVESTACK_POS(), SV* save_scalar(GV *gv), AV* save_ary(GV *gv), HV* save_hash(GV *gv), void save_item(SV *item), void save_list(SV **sarg, I32 maxsarg), SV* save_svref(SV **sptr), void save_aptr(AV **aptr), void save_hptr(HV **hptr)

    Subroutines
    XSUBs and the Argument Stack
    Calling Perl Routines from within C Programs
    Memory Allocation
    PerlIO
    Putting a C value on Perl stack
    Scratchpads
    Scratchpads and recursion
    Compiled code
    Code tree
    Examining the tree
    Compile pass 1: check routines
    Compile pass 1a: constant folding
    Compile pass 2: context propagation
    Compile pass 3: peephole optimization
    Pluggable runops
    Examining internal data structures with the dump functions
    How multiple interpreters and concurrency are supported
    Background and PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
    So what happened to dTHR?
    How do I use all this in extensions?
    Should I do anything special if I call perl from multiple threads?
    Future Plans and PERL_IMPLICIT_SYS
    Internal Functions

    A, p, d, s, n, r, f, M, o, x, m, X, E, b

    Formatted Printing of IVs, UVs, and NVs
    Pointer-To-Integer and Integer-To-Pointer
    Source Documentation
    Backwards compatibility
    Unicode Support
    What is Unicode, anyway?
    How can I recognise a UTF-8 string?
    How does UTF-8 represent Unicode characters?
    How does Perl store UTF-8 strings?
    How do I convert a string to UTF-8?
    Is there anything else I need to know?
    Custom Operators
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlcall - Perl calling conventions from C

    DESCRIPTION

    An Error Handler, An Event Driven Program

    THE CALL_ FUNCTIONS

    call_sv, call_pv, call_method, call_argv

    FLAG VALUES
    G_VOID
    G_SCALAR
    G_ARRAY
    G_DISCARD
    G_NOARGS
    G_EVAL
    G_KEEPERR
    Determining the Context
    EXAMPLES
    No Parameters, Nothing returned
    Passing Parameters
    Returning a Scalar
    Returning a list of values
    Returning a list in a scalar context
    Returning Data from Perl via the parameter list
    Using G_EVAL
    Using G_KEEPERR
    Using call_sv
    Using call_argv
    Using call_method
    Using GIMME_V
    Using Perl to dispose of temporaries
    Strategies for storing Callback Context Information

    1. Ignore the problem - Allow only 1 callback, 2. Create a sequence of callbacks - hard wired limit, 3. Use a parameter to map to the Perl callback

    Alternate Stack Manipulation
    Creating and calling an anonymous subroutine in C
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlapi - autogenerated documentation for the perl public API

    DESCRIPTION
    ``Gimme'' Values

    GIMME , GIMME_V , G_ARRAY , G_DISCARD , G_EVAL , G_NOARGS , G_SCALAR , G_VOID

    Array Manipulation Functions

    AvFILL , av_clear , av_delete , av_exists , av_extend , av_fetch , av_fill , av_len , av_make , av_pop , av_push , av_shift , av_store , av_undef , av_unshift , get_av , newAV , sortsv

    Callback Functions

    call_argv , call_method , call_pv , call_sv , ENTER , eval_pv , eval_sv , FREETMPS , LEAVE , SAVETMPS

    Character classes

    isALNUM , isALPHA , isDIGIT , isLOWER , isSPACE , isUPPER , toLOWER , toUPPER

    Cloning an interpreter

    perl_clone

    CV Manipulation Functions

    CvSTASH , get_cv

    Embedding Functions

    cv_undef , load_module , nothreadhook , perl_alloc , perl_construct , perl_destruct , perl_free , perl_parse , perl_run , require_pv

    Functions in file pp_pack.c

    packlist , pack_cat , unpackstring , unpack_str

    Global Variables

    PL_modglobal , PL_na , PL_sv_no , PL_sv_undef , PL_sv_yes

    GV Functions

    GvSV , gv_fetchmeth , gv_fetchmethod , gv_fetchmethod_autoload , gv_fetchmeth_autoload , gv_stashpv , gv_stashpvn , gv_stashsv

    Handy Values

    Nullav , Nullch , Nullcv , Nullhv , Nullsv

    Hash Manipulation Functions

    get_hv , HEf_SVKEY , HeHASH , HeKEY , HeKLEN , HePV , HeSVKEY , HeSVKEY_force , HeSVKEY_set , HeVAL , HvNAME , hv_clear , hv_clear_placeholders , hv_delete , hv_delete_ent , hv_exists , hv_exists_ent , hv_fetch , hv_fetch_ent , hv_iterinit , hv_iterkey , hv_iterkeysv , hv_iternext , hv_iternextsv , hv_iternext_flags , hv_iterval , hv_magic , hv_scalar , hv_store , hv_store_ent , hv_undef , newHV

    Magical Functions

    mg_clear , mg_copy , mg_find , mg_free , mg_get , mg_length , mg_magical , mg_set , SvGETMAGIC , SvLOCK , SvSETMAGIC , SvSetMagicSV , SvSetMagicSV_nosteal , SvSetSV , SvSetSV_nosteal , SvSHARE , SvUNLOCK

    Memory Management

    Copy , CopyD , Move , MoveD , Newx , Newxc , Newxz , Poison , Renew , Renewc , Safefree , savepv , savepvn , savesharedpv , savesvpv , StructCopy , Zero , ZeroD

    Miscellaneous Functions

    fbm_compile , fbm_instr , form , getcwd_sv , strEQ , strGE , strGT , strLE , strLT , strNE , strnEQ , strnNE , sv_nolocking , sv_nosharing , sv_nounlocking

    Numeric functions

    grok_bin , grok_hex , grok_number , grok_numeric_radix , grok_oct , scan_bin , scan_hex , scan_oct

    Optree Manipulation Functions

    cv_const_sv , newCONSTSUB , newXS

    Pad Data Structures

    pad_sv

    Stack Manipulation Macros

    dMARK , dORIGMARK , dSP , EXTEND , MARK , mPUSHi , mPUSHn , mPUSHp , mPUSHu , mXPUSHi , mXPUSHn , mXPUSHp , mXPUSHu , ORIGMARK , POPi , POPl , POPn , POPp , POPpbytex , POPpx , POPs , PUSHi , PUSHMARK , PUSHmortal , PUSHn , PUSHp , PUSHs , PUSHu , PUTBACK , SP , SPAGAIN , XPUSHi , XPUSHmortal , XPUSHn , XPUSHp , XPUSHs , XPUSHu , XSRETURN , XSRETURN_EMPTY , XSRETURN_IV , XSRETURN_NO , XSRETURN_NV , XSRETURN_PV , XSRETURN_UNDEF , XSRETURN_UV , XSRETURN_YES , XST_mIV , XST_mNO , XST_mNV , XST_mPV , XST_mUNDEF , XST_mYES

    SV Flags

    svtype , SVt_IV , SVt_NV , SVt_PV , SVt_PVAV , SVt_PVCV , SVt_PVHV , SVt_PVMG

    SV Manipulation Functions

    get_sv , looks_like_number , newRV_inc , newRV_noinc , NEWSV , newSV , newSVhek , newSViv , newSVnv , newSVpv , newSVpvf , newSVpvn , newSVpvn_share , newSVrv , newSVsv , newSVuv , SvCUR , SvCUR_set , SvEND , SvGROW , SvIOK , SvIOKp , SvIOK_notUV , SvIOK_off , SvIOK_on , SvIOK_only , SvIOK_only_UV , SvIOK_UV , SvIsCOW , SvIsCOW_shared_hash , SvIV , SvIVX , SvIVx , SvIV_set , SvLEN , SvLEN_set , SvMAGIC_set , SvNIOK , SvNIOKp , SvNIOK_off , SvNOK , SvNOKp , SvNOK_off , SvNOK_on , SvNOK_only , SvNV , SvNVX , SvNVx , SvNV_set , SvOK , SvOOK , SvPOK , SvPOKp , SvPOK_off , SvPOK_on , SvPOK_only , SvPOK_only_UTF8 , SvPV , SvPVbyte , SvPVbytex , SvPVbytex_force , SvPVbyte_force , SvPVbyte_nolen , SvPVutf8 , SvPVutf8x , SvPVutf8x_force , SvPVutf8_force , SvPVutf8_nolen , SvPVX , SvPVx , SvPV_force , SvPV_force_nomg , SvPV_nolen , SvPV_set , SvREFCNT , SvREFCNT_dec , SvREFCNT_inc , SvROK , SvROK_off , SvROK_on , SvRV , SvRV_set , SvSTASH , SvSTASH_set , SvTAINT , SvTAINTED , SvTAINTED_off , SvTAINTED_on , SvTRUE , SvTYPE , SvUOK , SvUPGRADE , SvUTF8 , SvUTF8_off , SvUTF8_on , SvUV , SvUVX , SvUVx , SvUV_set , sv_2bool , sv_2cv , sv_2io , sv_2iv , sv_2mortal , sv_2nv , sv_2pvbyte , sv_2pvbyte_nolen , sv_2pvutf8 , sv_2pvutf8_nolen , sv_2pv_flags , sv_2pv_nolen , sv_2uv , sv_backoff , sv_bless , sv_catpv , sv_catpvf , sv_catpvf_mg , sv_catpvn , sv_catpvn_flags , sv_catpvn_mg , sv_catpvn_nomg , sv_catpv_mg , sv_catsv , sv_catsv_flags , sv_catsv_mg , sv_catsv_nomg , sv_chop , sv_clear , sv_cmp , sv_cmp_locale , sv_collxfrm , sv_copypv , sv_dec , sv_derived_from , sv_eq , sv_force_normal , sv_force_normal_flags , sv_free , sv_gets , sv_grow , sv_inc , sv_insert , sv_isa , sv_isobject , sv_iv , sv_len , sv_len_utf8 , sv_magic , sv_magicext , sv_mortalcopy , sv_newmortal , sv_newref , sv_nv , sv_pos_b2u , sv_pos_u2b , sv_pv , sv_pvbyte , sv_pvbyten , sv_pvbyten_force , sv_pvn , sv_pvn_force , sv_pvn_force_flags , sv_pvutf8 , sv_pvutf8n , sv_pvutf8n_force , sv_reftype , sv_replace , sv_report_used , sv_reset , sv_rvweaken , sv_setiv , sv_setiv_mg , sv_setnv , sv_setnv_mg , sv_setpv , sv_setpvf , sv_setpvf_mg , sv_setpviv , sv_setpviv_mg , sv_setpvn , sv_setpvn_mg , sv_setpv_mg , sv_setref_iv , sv_setref_nv , sv_setref_pv , sv_setref_pvn , sv_setref_uv , sv_setsv , sv_setsv_flags , sv_setsv_mg , sv_setsv_nomg , sv_setuv , sv_setuv_mg , sv_taint , sv_tainted , sv_true , sv_unmagic , sv_unref , sv_unref_flags , sv_untaint , sv_upgrade , sv_usepvn , sv_usepvn_mg , sv_utf8_decode , sv_utf8_downgrade , sv_utf8_encode , sv_utf8_upgrade , sv_utf8_upgrade_flags , sv_uv , sv_vcatpvf , sv_vcatpvfn , sv_vcatpvf_mg , sv_vsetpvf , sv_vsetpvfn , sv_vsetpvf_mg

    Unicode Support

    bytes_from_utf8 , bytes_to_utf8 , ibcmp_utf8 , is_utf8_char , is_utf8_string , is_utf8_string_loc , is_utf8_string_loclen , pv_uni_display , sv_cat_decode , sv_recode_to_utf8 , sv_uni_display , to_utf8_case , to_utf8_fold , to_utf8_lower , to_utf8_title , to_utf8_upper , utf8n_to_uvchr , utf8n_to_uvuni , utf8_distance , utf8_hop , utf8_length , utf8_to_bytes , utf8_to_uvchr , utf8_to_uvuni , uvchr_to_utf8 , uvuni_to_utf8_flags

    Variables created by xsubpp and xsubpp internal functions

    ax , CLASS , dAX , dAXMARK , dITEMS , dXSARGS , dXSI32 , items , ix , newXSproto , RETVAL , ST , THIS , XS , XS_VERSION , XS_VERSION_BOOTCHECK

    Warning and Dieing

    croak , warn

    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlintern - autogenerated documentation of purely internal Perl functions

    DESCRIPTION
    CV reference counts and CvOUTSIDE

    CvWEAKOUTSIDE

    Functions in file pad.h

    CX_CURPAD_SAVE , CX_CURPAD_SV , PAD_BASE_SV , PAD_CLONE_VARS , PAD_COMPNAME_FLAGS , PAD_COMPNAME_GEN , PAD_COMPNAME_GEN_set , PAD_COMPNAME_OURSTASH , PAD_COMPNAME_PV , PAD_COMPNAME_TYPE , PAD_DUP , PAD_RESTORE_LOCAL , PAD_SAVE_LOCAL , PAD_SAVE_SETNULLPAD , PAD_SETSV , PAD_SET_CUR , PAD_SET_CUR_NOSAVE , PAD_SV , PAD_SVl , SAVECLEARSV , SAVECOMPPAD , SAVEPADSV

    Functions in file pp_ctl.c

    find_runcv

    Global Variables

    PL_DBsingle , PL_DBsub , PL_DBtrace , PL_dowarn , PL_last_in_gv , PL_ofs_sv , PL_rs

    GV Functions

    is_gv_magical

    IO Functions

    start_glob

    Pad Data Structures

    CvPADLIST , cv_clone , cv_dump , do_dump_pad , intro_my , pad_add_anon , pad_add_name , pad_alloc , pad_block_start , pad_check_dup , pad_findlex , pad_findmy , pad_fixup_inner_anons , pad_free , pad_leavemy , pad_new , pad_push , pad_reset , pad_setsv , pad_swipe , pad_tidy , pad_undef

    Stack Manipulation Macros

    djSP , LVRET

    SV Manipulation Functions

    report_uninit , sv_add_arena , sv_clean_all , sv_clean_objs , sv_free_arenas

    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perliol - C API for Perl's implementation of IO in Layers.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    History and Background
    Basic Structure
    Layers vs Disciplines
    Data Structures
    Functions and Attributes
    Per-instance Data
    Layers in action.
    Per-instance flag bits

    PERLIO_F_EOF, PERLIO_F_CANWRITE, PERLIO_F_CANREAD, PERLIO_F_ERROR, PERLIO_F_TRUNCATE, PERLIO_F_APPEND, PERLIO_F_CRLF, PERLIO_F_UTF8, PERLIO_F_UNBUF, PERLIO_F_WRBUF, PERLIO_F_RDBUF, PERLIO_F_LINEBUF, PERLIO_F_TEMP, PERLIO_F_OPEN, PERLIO_F_FASTGETS

    Methods in Detail

    fsize, name, size, kind, PERLIO_K_BUFFERED, PERLIO_K_RAW, PERLIO_K_CANCRLF, PERLIO_K_FASTGETS, PERLIO_K_MULTIARG, Pushed, Popped, Open, Binmode, Getarg, Fileno, Dup, Read, Write, Seek, Tell, Close, Flush, Fill, Eof, Error, Clearerr, Setlinebuf, Get_base, Get_bufsiz, Get_ptr, Get_cnt, Set_ptrcnt

    Utilities
    Implementing PerlIO Layers

    C implementations, Perl implementations

    Core Layers

    ``unix'', ``perlio'', ``stdio'', ``crlf'', ``mmap'', ``pending'', ``raw'', ``utf8''

    Extension Layers

    ``:encoding'', ``:scalar'', ``:via''

    TODO

    perlapio - perl's IO abstraction interface.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    1. USE_STDIO, 2. USE_SFIO, 3. USE_PERLIO, PerlIO_stdin(), PerlIO_stdout(), PerlIO_stderr(), PerlIO_open(path, mode), PerlIO_fdopen(fd,mode), PerlIO_reopen(path,mode,f), PerlIO_printf(f,fmt,...), PerlIO_vprintf(f,fmt,a), PerlIO_stdoutf(fmt,...), PerlIO_read(f,buf,count), PerlIO_write(f,buf,count), PerlIO_close(f), PerlIO_puts(f,s), PerlIO_putc(f,c), PerlIO_ungetc(f,c), PerlIO_getc(f), PerlIO_eof(f), PerlIO_error(f), PerlIO_fileno(f), PerlIO_clearerr(f), PerlIO_flush(f), PerlIO_seek(f,offset,whence), PerlIO_tell(f), PerlIO_getpos(f,p), PerlIO_setpos(f,p), PerlIO_rewind(f), PerlIO_tmpfile(), PerlIO_setlinebuf(f)

    Co-existence with stdio

    PerlIO_importFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_exportFILE(f,mode), PerlIO_releaseFILE(p,f), PerlIO_findFILE(f)

    ``Fast gets'' Functions

    PerlIO_fast_gets(f), PerlIO_has_cntptr(f), PerlIO_get_cnt(f), PerlIO_get_ptr(f), PerlIO_set_ptrcnt(f,p,c), PerlIO_canset_cnt(f), PerlIO_set_cnt(f,c), PerlIO_has_base(f), PerlIO_get_base(f), PerlIO_get_bufsiz(f)

    Other Functions

    PerlIO_apply_layers(f,mode,layers), PerlIO_binmode(f,ptype,imode,layers), '<' read, '>' write, '+' read/write, PerlIO_debug(fmt,...)

    perlhack - How to hack at the Perl internals

    DESCRIPTION

    Does concept match the general goals of Perl?, Where is the implementation?, Backwards compatibility, Could it be a module instead?, Is the feature generic enough?, Does it potentially introduce new bugs?, Does it preclude other desirable features?, Is the implementation robust?, Is the implementation generic enough to be portable?, Is the implementation tested?, Is there enough documentation?, Is there another way to do it?, Does it create too much work?, Patches speak louder than words

    Keeping in sync

    rsync'ing the source tree, Using rsync over the LAN, Using pushing over the NFS, rsync'ing the patches

    Why rsync the source tree

    It's easier to rsync the source tree, It's more reliable

    Why rsync the patches

    It's easier to rsync the patches, It's a good reference, Finding a start point, Finding how to fix a bug, Finding the source of misbehaviour

    Working with the source
    Perlbug administration
    Submitting patches

    the perlguts manpage, the perlxstut manpage and the perlxs manpage, the perlapi manpage, Porting/pumpkin.pod, The perl5-porters FAQ

    Finding Your Way Around

    Core modules, Tests, Documentation, Configure, Interpreter

    Elements of the interpreter

    Startup, Parsing, Optimization, Running, Exception handing

    Internal Variable Types
    Op Trees
    Stacks

    Argument stack, Mark stack, Save stack

    Millions of Macros
    The .i Targets
    Poking at Perl
    Using a source-level debugger

    run [args], break function_name, break source.c:xxx, step, next, continue, finish, 'enter', print

    gdb macro support
    Dumping Perl Data Structures
    Patching
    Patching a core module
    Adding a new function to the core
    Writing a test

    t/base/, t/cmd/, t/comp/, t/io/, t/lib/, t/op/, t/pod/, t/run/, t/uni/, t/win32/, t/x2p, t/base t/comp, t/cmd t/run t/io t/op, t/lib ext lib

    Special Make Test Targets

    coretest, test.deparse, test.taintwarn, minitest, test.valgrind check.valgrind utest.valgrind ucheck.valgrind, test.third check.third utest.third ucheck.third, test.torture torturetest, utest ucheck test.utf8 check.utf8, minitest.utf16 test.utf16, test_harness, test-notty test_notty

    Running tests by hand

    -v, -torture, -re=PATTERN, -re LIST OF PATTERNS, PERL_CORE=1, PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL=2, PERL, PERL_SKIP_TTY_TEST

    EXTERNAL TOOLS FOR DEBUGGING PERL
    Rational Software's Purify
    Purify on Unix

    -Accflags=-DPURIFY, -Doptimize='-g', -Uusemymalloc, -Dusemultiplicity

    Purify on NT

    DEFINES, USE_MULTI = define, #PERL_MALLOC = define, CFG = Debug

    valgrind
    Compaq's/Digital's/HP's Third Degree
    PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL
    Profiling
    Gprof Profiling

    -a, -b, -e routine, -f routine, -s, -z

    GCC gcov Profiling
    Pixie Profiling

    -h, -l, -p[rocedures], -h[eavy], -i[nvocations], -l[ines], -testcoverage, -z[ero]

    Miscellaneous tricks
    CONCLUSION

    The Road goes ever on and on, down from the door where it began.

    AUTHOR

    perlbook - Perl book information

    DESCRIPTION

    perltodo - Perl TO-DO List

    DESCRIPTION
    The roadmap to 5.10
    Needed for a 5.9.4 release
    Needed for a 5.9.5 release

    Implement _ prototype character, Implement state variables

    Needed for a 5.9.6 release
    Tasks that only need Perl knowledge
    common test code for timed bail out
    POD -> HTML conversion in the core still sucks
    Parallel testing
    Make Schwern poorer
    Improve the coverage of the core tests
    test B
    A decent benchmark
    fix tainting bugs
    Dual life everything
    Improving threads::shared
    POSIX memory footprint
    Tasks that need a little sysadmin-type knowledge
    Relocatable perl
    make HTML install work
    compressed man pages
    Add a code coverage target to the Makefile
    Make Config.pm cope with differences between build and installed perl
    make parallel builds work
    linker specification files
    Tasks that need a little C knowledge
    Make it clear from -v if this is the exact official release
    Tidy up global variables
    Ordering of ``global'' variables.
    bincompat functions
    am I hot or not?
    emulate the per-thread memory pool on Unix
    reduce duplication in sv_setsv_flags
    Tasks that need a knowledge of XS
    IPv6
    shrink GVs, CVs
    merge Perl_sv_2[inpu]v
    UTF8 caching code
    Implicit Latin 1 => Unicode translation
    autovivification
    Unicode in Filenames
    Unicode in %ENV
    use less 'memory'
    Re-implement :unique in a way that is actually thread-safe
    Make tainting consistent
    readpipe(LIST)
    Tasks that need a knowledge of the interpreter
    lexical pragmas
    Attach/detach debugger from running program
    Constant folding
    LVALUE functions for lists
    LVALUE functions in the debugger
    _ prototype character
    state variables
    @INC source filter to Filter::Simple
    regexp optimiser optional
    UNITCHECK
    optional optimizer
    You WANT *how* many
    lexical aliases
    entersub XS vs Perl
    Self ties
    Optimize away @_
    What hooks would assertions need?
    Big projects
    make ithreads more robust
    iCOW
    (?{...}) closures in regexps
    A re-entrant regexp engine

    perldoc - Look up Perl documentation in Pod format.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS

    -h, -v, -t, -u, -m module, -l, -F, -f perlfunc, -q perlfaq-search-regexp, -T, -d destination-filename, -o output-formatname, -M module-name, -w option:value or -w option, -X, PageName|ModuleName|ProgramName, -n some-formatter, -r, -i, -V

    SECURITY
    ENVIRONMENT
    AUTHOR

    perlhist - the Perl history records

    DESCRIPTION
    INTRODUCTION
    THE KEEPERS OF THE PUMPKIN
    PUMPKIN?
    THE RECORDS
    SELECTED RELEASE SIZES
    SELECTED PATCH SIZES
    THE KEEPERS OF THE RECORDS

    perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.8

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Performance Enhancements
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    Platform Specific Problems
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl588delta, perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.8

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Performance Enhancements
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    Platform Specific Problems
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl587delta, perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.7

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Unicode Character Database 4.1.0
    suidperl less insecure
    Optional site customization script
    Config.pm is now much smaller.
    Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    find2perl enhancements
    Performance Enhancements
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Known Problems
    Platform Specific Problems
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl586delta - what is new for perl v5.8.6

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    Performance Enhancements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    New Tests
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl585delta - what is new for perl v5.8.5

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    Perl's debugger
    h2ph
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Known Problems
    Platform Specific Problems
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl584delta - what is new for perl v5.8.4

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Malloc wrapping
    Unicode Character Database 4.0.1
    suidperl less insecure
    format
    Modules and Pragmata
    Updated modules

    Attribute::Handlers, B, Benchmark, CGI, Carp, Cwd, Exporter, File::Find, IO, IPC::Open3, Local::Maketext, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, Math::BigRat, MIME::Base64, ODBM_File, POSIX, Shell, Socket, Storable, Switch, Sys::Syslog, Term::ANSIColor, Time::HiRes, Unicode::UCD, Win32, base, open, threads, utf8

    Performance Enhancements
    Utility Changes
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Future Directions
    Platform Specific Problems
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl583delta - what is new for perl v5.8.3

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata

    CGI, Cwd, Digest, Digest::MD5, Encode, File::Spec, FindBin, List::Util, Math::BigInt, PodParser, Pod::Perldoc, POSIX, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Test::Harness, threads::shared

    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Configuration and Building
    Platform Specific Problems
    Known Problems
    Future Directions
    Obituary
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl582delta - what is new for perl v5.8.2

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Hash Randomisation
    Threading
    Modules and Pragmata
    Updated Modules And Pragmata

    Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, I18N::LangTags, libnet, MIME::Base64, Pod::Perldoc, strict, Tie::Hash, Time::HiRes, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, UNIVERSAL

    Selected Bug Fixes
    Changed Internals
    Platform Specific Problems
    Future Directions
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl581delta - what is new for perl v5.8.1

    DESCRIPTION
    Incompatible Changes
    Hash Randomisation
    UTF-8 On Filehandles No Longer Activated By Locale
    Single-number v-strings are no longer v-strings before ``=>''
    (Win32) The -C Switch Has Been Repurposed
    (Win32) The /d Switch Of cmd.exe
    Core Enhancements
    UTF-8 no longer default under UTF-8 locales
    Unsafe signals again available
    Tied Arrays with Negative Array Indices
    local ${$x}
    Unicode Character Database 4.0.0
    Deprecation Warnings
    Miscellaneous Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    Updated Modules And Pragmata

    base, B::Bytecode, B::Concise, B::Deparse, Benchmark, ByteLoader, bytes, CGI, charnames, CPAN, Data::Dumper, DB_File, Devel::PPPort, Digest::MD5, Encode, fields, libnet, Math::BigInt, MIME::Base64, NEXT, Net::Ping, PerlIO::scalar, podlators, Pod::LaTeX, PodParsers, Pod::Perldoc, Scalar::Util, Storable, strict, Term::ANSIcolor, Test::Harness, Test::More, Test::Simple, Text::Balanced, Time::HiRes, threads, threads::shared, Unicode::Collate, Unicode::Normalize, Win32::GetFolderPath, Win32::GetOSVersion

    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Platform-specific enhancements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    Closures, eval and lexicals
    Generic fixes
    Platform-specific fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed ``A thread exited while %d threads were running''
    Removed ``Attempt to clear a restricted hash''
    New ``Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine''
    Changed ``Invalid range ''%s`` in transliteration operator''
    New ``Missing control char name in \c''
    New ``Newline in left-justified string for %s''
    New ``Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator''
    New ``Pseudo-hashes are deprecated''
    New ``read() on %s filehandle %s''
    New ``5.005 threads are deprecated''
    New ``Tied variable freed while still in use''
    New ``To%s: illegal mapping '%s'''
    New ``Use of freed value in iteration''
    Changed Internals
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    Tied hashes in scalar context
    Net::Ping 450_service and 510_ping_udp failures
    B::C
    Platform Specific Problems
    EBCDIC Platforms
    Cygwin 1.5 problems
    HP-UX: HP cc warnings about sendfile and sendpath
    IRIX: t/uni/tr_7jis.t falsely failing
    Mac OS X: no usemymalloc
    Tru64: No threaded builds with GNU cc (gcc)
    Win32: sysopen, sysread, syswrite
    Future Directions
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO

    perl58delta - what is new for perl v5.8.0

    DESCRIPTION
    Highlights In 5.8.0
    Incompatible Changes
    Binary Incompatibility
  • -bit platforms and malloc
    AIX Dynaloading
    Attributes for my variables now handled at run-time
    Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
    IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha
    New Unicode Semantics (no more use utf8, almost)
    New Unicode Properties
    REF(...) Instead Of SCALAR(...)
    pack/unpack D/F recycled
    glob() now returns filenames in alphabetical order
    Deprecations
  • Core Enhancements
    Unicode Overhaul
    PerlIO is Now The Default
    ithreads
    Restricted Hashes
    Safe Signals
    Understanding of Numbers
    Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings [561]
    Miscellaneous Changes
    Modules and Pragmata
    New Modules and Pragmata
    Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Performance Enhancements
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Generic Improvements
    New Or Improved Platforms
    Selected Bug Fixes
    Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Security Vulnerability Closed [561]
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    The Compiler Suite Is Still Very Experimental
    Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken
    Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
    Modifying $_ Inside for(..)
    mod_perl 1.26 Doesn't Build With Threaded Perl
    lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
    libwww-perl (LWP) fails base/date #51
    PDL failing some tests
    Perl_get_sv
    Self-tying Problems
    ext/threads/t/libc
    Failure of Thread (5.005-style) tests
    Timing problems
    Tied/Magical Array/Hash Elements Do Not Autovivify
    Unicode in package/class and subroutine names does not work
    Platform Specific Problems
    AIX
    Alpha systems with old gccs fail several tests
    AmigaOS
    BeOS
    Cygwin ``unable to remap''
    Cygwin ndbm tests fail on FAT
    DJGPP Failures
    FreeBSD built with ithreads coredumps reading large directories
    FreeBSD Failing locale Test 117 For ISO 8859-15 Locales
    IRIX fails ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t or Digest::MD5
    HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
    Linux with glibc 2.2.5 fails t/op/int subtest #6 with -Duse64bitint
    Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
    Mac OS X
    Mac OS X dyld undefined symbols
    OS/2 Test Failures
    op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130
    SCO
    Solaris 2.5
    Solaris x86 Fails Tests With -Duse64bitint
    SUPER-UX (NEC SX)
    Term::ReadKey not working on Win32
    UNICOS/mk
    UTS
    VOS (Stratus)
    VMS
    Win32
    XML::Parser not working
    z/OS (OS/390)
    Unicode Support on EBCDIC Still Spotty
    Seen In Perl 5.7 But Gone Now
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl573delta - what's new for perl v5.7.3

    DESCRIPTION
    Changes
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl572delta - what's new for perl v5.7.2

    DESCRIPTION
    Security Vulnerability Closed
    Incompatible Changes
    1. -bit platforms and malloc
      AIX Dynaloading
      Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS
      Different Definition of the Unicode Character Classes \p{In...}
      Deprecations
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    New Modules and Distributions
    Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    New Or Improved Platforms
    Generic Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Source Code Enhancements
    MAGIC constants
    Better commented code
    Regex pre-/post-compilation items matched up
    gcc -Wall
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    AIX
    Amiga Perl Invoking Mystery
    lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
    Cygwin intermittent failures of lib/Memoize/t/expire_file 11 and 12
    HP-UX lib/io_multihomed Fails When LP64-Configured
    HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured
    Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
    OS/390
    op/sprintf tests 129 and 130
    Failure of Thread tests
    UNICOS
    UTS
    VMS
    Win32
    Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
    Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
    Variable Attributes are not Currently Usable for Tieing
    Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
    The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
    The Long Double Support is Still Experimental
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl571delta - what's new for perl v5.7.1

    DESCRIPTION
    Security Vulnerability Closed
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    AUTOLOAD Is Now Lvaluable
    PerlIO is Now The Default
    Signals Are Now Safe
    Modules and Pragmata
    New Modules
    Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
    Performance Enhancements
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    perlclib
    perliol
    README.aix
    README.bs2000
    README.macos
    README.mpeix
    README.solaris
    README.vos
    Porting/repository.pod
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    New Or Improved Platforms
    Generic Improvements

    d_cmsghdr, d_fcntl_can_lock, d_fsync, d_getitimer, d_getpagsz, d_msghdr_s, need_va_copy, d_readv, d_recvmsg, d_sendmsg, sig_size, d_sockatmark, d_strtoq, d_u32align, d_ualarm, d_usleep

    Selected Bug Fixes
    Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    New Tests
    Known Problems
    AIX vac 5.0.0.0 May Produce Buggy Code For Perl
    lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
    lib/io_multihomed Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
    Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
    lib/b test 19
    Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
    sigaction test 13 in VMS
    sprintf tests 129 and 130
    Failure of Thread tests
    Localising a Tied Variable Leaks Memory
    Self-tying of Arrays and Hashes Is Forbidden
    Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
    The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl570delta - what's new for perl v5.7.0

    DESCRIPTION
    Security Vulnerability Closed
    Incompatible Changes
    Core Enhancements
    Modules and Pragmata
    New Modules
    Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    New Documentation
    Performance Enhancements
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    Generic Improvements
    Selected Bug Fixes
    Platform Specific Changes and Fixes
    New or Changed Diagnostics
    Changed Internals
    Known Problems
    Unicode Support Still Far From Perfect
    EBCDIC Still A Lost Platform
    Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles
    ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'
    Test lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails In LP64-Configured HP-UX
    Long Doubles Still Don't Work In Solaris
    Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48
    Storable tests fail in some platforms
    Threads Are Still Experimental
    The Compiler Suite Is Still Experimental
    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl561delta - what's new for perl v5.6.x

    DESCRIPTION
    Summary of changes between 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
    Security Issues
    Core bug fixes

    UNIVERSAL::isa(), Memory leaks, Numeric conversions, qw(a\\b), caller(), Bugs in regular expressions, ``slurp'' mode, Autovivification of symbolic references to special variables, Lexical warnings, Spurious warnings and errors, glob(), Tainting, sort(), #line directives, Subroutine prototypes, map(), Debugger, PERL5OPT, chop(), Unicode support, 64-bit support, Compiler, Lvalue subroutines, IO::Socket, File::Find, xsubpp, no Module;, Tests

    Core features
    Configuration issues
    Documentation
    Bundled modules

    B::Concise, File::Temp, Pod::LaTeX, Pod::Text::Overstrike, CGI, CPAN, Class::Struct, DB_File, Devel::Peek, File::Find, Getopt::Long, IO::Poll, IPC::Open3, Math::BigFloat, Math::Complex, Net::Ping, Opcode, Pod::Parser, Pod::Text, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Tie::RefHash, Tie::SubstrHash

    Platform-specific improvements

    NCR MP-RAS, NonStop-UX

    Core Enhancements
    Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
    Lexically scoped warning categories
    Unicode and UTF-8 support
    Support for interpolating named characters
    ``our'' declarations
    Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
    Improved Perl version numbering system
    New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
    File and directory handles can be autovivified
    open() with more than two arguments
  • -bit support
    Large file support
    Long doubles
    ``more bits''
    Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
    sort $coderef @foo allowed
    File globbing implemented internally
    Support for CHECK blocks
    POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
    Better pseudo-random number generator
    Improved qw// operator
    Better worst-case behavior of hashes
    pack() format 'Z' supported
    pack() format modifier '!' supported
    pack() and unpack() support counted strings
    Comments in pack() templates
    Weak references
    Binary numbers supported
    Lvalue subroutines
    Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
    Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues
    exists() is supported on subroutine names
    exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
    Pseudo-hashes work better
    Automatic flushing of output buffers
    Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
    Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
    eof() has the same old magic as <>
    binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
    -T filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as ``text''
    system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
    Improved diagnostics
    Diagnostics follow STDERR
    More consistent close-on-exec behavior
    syswrite() ease-of-use
    Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
    Bit operators support full native integer width
    Improved security features
    More functional bareword prototype (*)
    require and do may be overridden
    $^X variables may now have names longer than one character
    New variable $^C reflects -c switch
    New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
    Optional Y2K warnings
    Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
    @- and @+ provide starting/ending offsets of regex submatches
  • Modules and Pragmata
    Modules

    attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

    Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    dprofpp
    find2perl
    h2xs
    perlcc
    perldoc
    The Perl Debugger
    Improved Documentation

    perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod

    Performance enhancements
    Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
    Optimized assignments to lexical variables
    Faster subroutine calls
    delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    -Dusethreads means something different
    New Configure flags
    Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
    Long Doubles
    -Dusemorebits
    -Duselargefiles
    installusrbinperl
    SOCKS support
    -A flag
    Enhanced Installation Directories
    gcc automatically tried if 'cc' does not seem to be working
    Platform specific changes
    Supported platforms
    DOS
    OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
    VMS
    Win32
    Significant bug fixes
    <HANDLE> on empty files
    eval '...' improvements
    All compilation errors are true errors
    Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
    Behavior of list slices is more consistent
    (\$) prototype and $foo{a}
    goto &sub and AUTOLOAD
    -bareword allowed under use integer
    Failures in DESTROY()
    Locale bugs fixed
    Memory leaks
    Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
    Taint failures under -U
    END blocks and the -c switch
    Potential to leak DATA filehandles
    New or Changed Diagnostics

    ``%s'' variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, ``my sub'' not yet implemented, ``our'' variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as ``%s'', %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script ``%s'', Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in ``%s'', Can't declare %s in ``%s'', Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean ``local'' instead of ``our''?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol ``%s'' requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value ``%s'', Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in ``my sub'', No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in ``our'', No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around ``%s'' list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma ``attrs'' is deprecated, use ``sub NAME : ATTRS'' instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol ``%s'' too long, Version number must be a constant number

    New tests
    Incompatible Changes
    Perl Source Incompatibilities

    CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, undef fails on read only values, Close-on-exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and \(%h), vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, %@ has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype (*) have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results

    C Source Incompatibilities

    PERL_POLLUTE, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC

    Compatible C Source API Changes

    PATCHLEVEL is now PERL_VERSION

    Binary Incompatibilities
    Known Problems
    Localizing a tied hash element may leak memory
    Known test failures
    EBCDIC platforms not fully supported
    UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
    Arrow operator and arrays
    Experimental features

    Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs:

    Obsolete Diagnostics

    Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of ``$$<digit>'' to mean ``${$}<digit>'' is deprecated

    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl56delta - what's new for perl v5.6.0

    DESCRIPTION
    Core Enhancements
    Interpreter cloning, threads, and concurrency
    Lexically scoped warning categories
    Unicode and UTF-8 support
    Support for interpolating named characters
    ``our'' declarations
    Support for strings represented as a vector of ordinals
    Improved Perl version numbering system
    New syntax for declaring subroutine attributes
    File and directory handles can be autovivified
    open() with more than two arguments
  • -bit support
    Large file support
    Long doubles
    ``more bits''
    Enhanced support for sort() subroutines
    sort $coderef @foo allowed
    File globbing implemented internally
    Support for CHECK blocks
    POSIX character class syntax [: :] supported
    Better pseudo-random number generator
    Improved qw// operator
    Better worst-case behavior of hashes
    pack() format 'Z' supported
    pack() format modifier '!' supported
    pack() and unpack() support counted strings
    Comments in pack() templates
    Weak references
    Binary numbers supported
    Lvalue subroutines
    Some arrows may be omitted in calls through references
    Boolean assignment operators are legal lvalues
    exists() is supported on subroutine names
    exists() and delete() are supported on array elements
    Pseudo-hashes work better
    Automatic flushing of output buffers
    Better diagnostics on meaningless filehandle operations
    Where possible, buffered data discarded from duped input filehandle
    eof() has the same old magic as <>
    binmode() can be used to set :crlf and :raw modes
    -T filetest recognizes UTF-8 encoded files as ``text''
    system(), backticks and pipe open now reflect exec() failure
    Improved diagnostics
    Diagnostics follow STDERR
    More consistent close-on-exec behavior
    syswrite() ease-of-use
    Better syntax checks on parenthesized unary operators
    Bit operators support full native integer width
    Improved security features
    More functional bareword prototype (*)
    require and do may be overridden
    $^X variables may now have names longer than one character
    New variable $^C reflects -c switch
    New variable $^V contains Perl version as a string
    Optional Y2K warnings
    Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings
    @- and @+ provide starting/ending offsets of regex matches
  • Modules and Pragmata
    Modules

    attributes, B, Benchmark, ByteLoader, constant, charnames, Data::Dumper, DB, DB_File, Devel::DProf, Devel::Peek, Dumpvalue, DynaLoader, English, Env, Fcntl, File::Compare, File::Find, File::Glob, File::Spec, File::Spec::Functions, Getopt::Long, IO, JPL, lib, Math::BigInt, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, Pod::Parser, Pod::InputObjects, Pod::Checker, podchecker, Pod::ParseUtils, Pod::Find, Pod::Select, podselect, Pod::Usage, pod2usage, Pod::Text and Pod::Man, SDBM_File, Sys::Syslog, Sys::Hostname, Term::ANSIColor, Time::Local, Win32, XSLoader, DBM Filters

    Pragmata
    Utility Changes
    dprofpp
    find2perl
    h2xs
    perlcc
    perldoc
    The Perl Debugger
    Improved Documentation

    perlapi.pod, perlboot.pod, perlcompile.pod, perldbmfilter.pod, perldebug.pod, perldebguts.pod, perlfork.pod, perlfilter.pod, perlhack.pod, perlintern.pod, perllexwarn.pod, perlnumber.pod, perlopentut.pod, perlreftut.pod, perltootc.pod, perltodo.pod, perlunicode.pod

    Performance enhancements
    Simple sort() using { $a <=> $b } and the like are optimized
    Optimized assignments to lexical variables
    Faster subroutine calls
    delete(), each(), values() and hash iteration are faster
    Installation and Configuration Improvements
    -Dusethreads means something different
    New Configure flags
    Threadedness and 64-bitness now more daring
    Long Doubles
    -Dusemorebits
    -Duselargefiles
    installusrbinperl
    SOCKS support
    -A flag
    Enhanced Installation Directories
    Platform specific changes
    Supported platforms
    DOS
    OS390 (OpenEdition MVS)
    VMS
    Win32
    Significant bug fixes
    <HANDLE> on empty files
    eval '...' improvements
    All compilation errors are true errors
    Implicitly closed filehandles are safer
    Behavior of list slices is more consistent
    (\$) prototype and $foo{a}
    goto &sub and AUTOLOAD
    -bareword allowed under use integer
    Failures in DESTROY()
    Locale bugs fixed
    Memory leaks
    Spurious subroutine stubs after failed subroutine calls
    Taint failures under -U
    END blocks and the -c switch
    Potential to leak DATA filehandles
    New or Changed Diagnostics

    ``%s'' variable %s masks earlier declaration in same %s, ``my sub'' not yet implemented, ``our'' variable %s redeclared, '!' allowed only after types %s, / cannot take a count, / must be followed by a, A or Z, / must be followed by a*, A* or Z*, / must follow a numeric type, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed through, /%s/ should probably be written as ``%s'', %s() called too early to check prototype, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element, %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice, %s argument is not a subroutine name, %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word: %s, (in cleanup) %s, <> should be quotes, Attempt to join self, Bad evalled substitution pattern, Bad realloc() ignored, Bareword found in conditional, Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-portable, Bit vector size > 32 non-portable, Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s, Can't check filesystem of script ``%s'', Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in ``%s'', Can't declare %s in ``%s'', Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default, Can't modify non-lvalue subroutine call, Can't read CRTL environ, Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file, Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine, Can't weaken a nonreference, Character class [:%s:] unknown, Character class syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes, Constant is not %s reference, constant(%s): %s, CORE::%s is not a keyword, defined(@array) is deprecated, defined(%hash) is deprecated, Did not produce a valid header, (Did you mean ``local'' instead of ``our''?), Document contains no data, entering effective %s failed, false [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Filehandle %s opened only for output, flock() on closed filehandle %s, Global symbol ``%s'' requires explicit package name, Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable, Ill-formed CRTL environ value ``%s'', Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|, Illegal binary digit %s, Illegal binary digit %s ignored, Illegal number of bits in vec, Integer overflow in %s number, Invalid %s attribute: %s, Invalid %s attributes: %s, invalid [] range ``%s'' in regexp, Invalid separator character %s in attribute list, Invalid separator character %s in subroutine attribute list, leaving effective %s failed, Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet, Method %s not permitted, Missing %sbrace%s on \N{}, Missing command in piped open, Missing name in ``my sub'', No %s specified for -%c, No package name allowed for variable %s in ``our'', No space allowed after -%c, no UTC offset information; assuming local time is UTC, Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable, panic: del_backref, panic: kid popen errno read, panic: magic_killbackrefs, Parentheses missing around ``%s'' list, Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string, Possible Y2K bug: %s, pragma ``attrs'' is deprecated, use ``sub NAME : ATTRS'' instead, Premature end of script headers, Repeat count in pack overflows, Repeat count in unpack overflows, realloc() of freed memory ignored, Reference is already weak, setpgrp can't take arguments, Strange *+?{} on zero-length expression, switching effective %s is not implemented, This Perl can't reset CRTL environ elements (%s), This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s), Too late to run %s block, Unknown open() mode '%s', Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s, Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through, Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list, Unterminated attribute list, Unterminated attribute parameter in subroutine attribute list, Unterminated subroutine attribute list, Value of CLI symbol ``%s'' too long, Version number must be a constant number

    New tests
    Incompatible Changes
    Perl Source Incompatibilities

    CHECK is a new keyword, Treatment of list slices of undef has changed, Format of $English::PERL_VERSION is different, Literals of the form 1.2.3 parse differently, Possibly changed pseudo-random number generator, Hashing function for hash keys has changed, undef fails on read only values, Close-on-exec bit may be set on pipe and socket handles, Writing "$$1" to mean "${$}1" is unsupported, delete(), each(), values() and \(%h), vec(EXPR,OFFSET,BITS) enforces powers-of-two BITS, Text of some diagnostic output has changed, %@ has been removed, Parenthesized not() behaves like a list operator, Semantics of bareword prototype (*) have changed, Semantics of bit operators may have changed on 64-bit platforms, More builtins taint their results

    C Source Incompatibilities

    PERL_POLLUTE, PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT, PERL_POLLUTE_MALLOC

    Compatible C Source API Changes

    PATCHLEVEL is now PERL_VERSION

    Binary Incompatibilities
    Known Problems
    Thread test failures
    EBCDIC platforms not supported
    In 64-bit HP-UX the lib/io_multihomed test may hang
    NEXTSTEP 3.3 POSIX test failure
    Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1) lib/sdbm test failure with gcc
    UNICOS/mk CC failures during Configure run
    Arrow operator and arrays
    Experimental features

    Threads, Unicode, 64-bit support, Lvalue subroutines, Weak references, The pseudo-hash data type, The Compiler suite, Internal implementation of file globbing, The DB module, The regular expression code constructs:

    Obsolete Diagnostics

    Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, In string, @%s now must be written as \@%s, Probable precedence problem on %s, regexp too big, Use of ``$$<digit>'' to mean ``${$}<digit>'' is deprecated

    Reporting Bugs
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl5005delta - what's new for perl5.005

    DESCRIPTION
    About the new versioning system
    Incompatible Changes
    WARNING: This version is not binary compatible with Perl 5.004.
    Default installation structure has changed
    Perl Source Compatibility
    C Source Compatibility
    Binary Compatibility
    Security fixes may affect compatibility
    Relaxed new mandatory warnings introduced in 5.004
    Licensing
    Core Changes
    Threads
    Compiler
    Regular Expressions

    Many new and improved optimizations, Many bug fixes, New regular expression constructs, New operator for precompiled regular expressions, Other improvements, Incompatible changes

    Improved malloc()
    Quicksort is internally implemented
    Reliable signals
    Reliable stack pointers
    More generous treatment of carriage returns
    Memory leaks
    Better support for multiple interpreters
    Behavior of local() on array and hash elements is now well-defined
    %! is transparently tied to the the Errno manpage module
    Pseudo-hashes are supported
    EXPR foreach EXPR is supported
    Keywords can be globally overridden
    $^E is meaningful on Win32
    foreach (1..1000000) optimized
    Foo:: can be used as implicitly quoted package name
    exists $Foo::{Bar::} tests existence of a package
    Better locale support
    Experimental support for 64-bit platforms
    prototype() returns useful results on builtins
    Extended support for exception handling
    Re-blessing in DESTROY() supported for chaining DESTROY() methods
    All printf format conversions are handled internally
    New INIT keyword
    New lock keyword
    New qr// operator
    our is now a reserved word
    Tied arrays are now fully supported
    Tied handles support is better
  • th argument to substr
    Negative LENGTH argument to splice
    Magic lvalues are now more magical
    <> now reads in records
  • Supported Platforms
    New Platforms
    Changes in existing support
    Modules and Pragmata
    New Modules

    B, Data::Dumper, Dumpvalue, Errno, File::Spec, ExtUtils::Installed, ExtUtils::Packlist, Fatal, IPC::SysV, Test, Tie::Array, Tie::Handle, Thread, attrs, fields, re

    Changes in existing modules

    Benchmark, Carp, CGI, Fcntl, Math::Complex, Math::Trig, POSIX, DB_File, MakeMaker, CPAN, Cwd

    Utility Changes
    Documentation Changes
    New Diagnostics

    Ambiguous call resolved as CORE::%s(), qualify as such or use &, Bad index while coercing array into hash, Bareword ``%s'' refers to nonexistent package, Can't call method ``%s'' on an undefined value, Can't check filesystem of script ``%s'' for nosuid, Can't coerce array into hash, Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string, Can't localize pseudo-hash element, Can't use %%! because Errno.pm is not available, Cannot find an opnumber for ``%s'', Character class syntax [. .] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [: :] is reserved for future extensions, Character class syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions, %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression, %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval', %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time, Explicit blessing to '' (assuming package main), Illegal hex digit ignored, No such array field, No such field ``%s'' in variable %s of type %s, Out of memory during ridiculously large request, Range iterator outside integer range, Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method '%s' %s, Reference found where even-sized list expected, Undefined value assigned to typeglob, Use of reserved word ``%s'' is deprecated, perl: warning: Setting locale failed

    Obsolete Diagnostics

    Can't mktemp(), Can't write to temp file for -e: %s, Cannot open temporary file, regexp too big

    Configuration Changes
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perl5004delta - what's new for perl5.004

    DESCRIPTION
    Supported Environments
    Core Changes
    List assignment to %ENV works
    Change to ``Can't locate Foo.pm in @INC'' error
    Compilation option: Binary compatibility with 5.003
    $PERL5OPT environment variable
    Limitations on -M, -m, and -T options
    More precise warnings
    Deprecated: Inherited AUTOLOAD for non-methods
    Previously deprecated %OVERLOAD is no longer usable
    Subroutine arguments created only when they're modified
    Group vector changeable with $)
    Fixed parsing of $$<digit>, &$<digit>, etc.
    Fixed localization of $<digit>, $&, etc.
    No resetting of $. on implicit close
    wantarray may return undef
    eval EXPR determines value of EXPR in scalar context
    Changes to tainting checks

    No glob() or <*>, No spawning if tainted $CDPATH, $ENV, $BASH_ENV, No spawning if tainted $TERM doesn't look like a terminal name

    New Opcode module and revised Safe module
    Embedding improvements
    Internal change: FileHandle class based on IO::* classes
    Internal change: PerlIO abstraction interface
    New and changed syntax

    $coderef->(PARAMS)

    New and changed builtin constants

    __PACKAGE__

    New and changed builtin variables

    $^E, $^H, $^M

    New and changed builtin functions

    delete on slices, flock, printf and sprintf, keys as an lvalue, my() in Control Structures, pack() and unpack(), sysseek(), use VERSION, use Module VERSION LIST, prototype(FUNCTION), srand, $_ as Default, m//gc does not reset search position on failure, m//x ignores whitespace before ?*+{}, nested sub{} closures work now, formats work right on changing lexicals

    New builtin methods

    isa(CLASS), can(METHOD), VERSION( [NEED] )

    TIEHANDLE now supported

    TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, LIST, READ this LIST, READLINE this, GETC this, DESTROY this

    Malloc enhancements

    -DPERL_EMERGENCY_SBRK, -DPACK_MALLOC, -DTWO_POT_OPTIMIZE

    Miscellaneous efficiency enhancements
    Support for More Operating Systems
    Win32
    Plan 9
    QNX
    AmigaOS
    Pragmata

    use autouse MODULE => qw(sub1 sub2 sub3), use blib, use blib 'dir', use constant NAME => VALUE, use locale, use ops, use vmsish

    Modules
    Required Updates
    Installation directories
    Module information summary
    Fcntl
    IO
    Math::Complex
    Math::Trig
    DB_File
    Net::Ping
    Object-oriented overrides for builtin operators
    Utility Changes
    pod2html

    Sends converted HTML to standard output

    xsubpp

    void XSUBs now default to returning nothing

    C Language API Changes

    gv_fetchmethod and perl_call_sv, perl_eval_pv, Extended API for manipulating hashes

    Documentation Changes

    the perldelta manpage, the perlfaq manpage, the perllocale manpage, the perltoot manpage, the perlapio manpage, the perlmodlib manpage, the perldebug manpage, the perlsec manpage

    New Diagnostics

    ``my'' variable %s masks earlier declaration in same scope, %s argument is not a HASH element or slice, Allocation too large: %lx, Allocation too large, Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s), Attempt to free nonexistent shared string, Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr, Bareword ``%s'' refers to nonexistent package, Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s, Can't use bareword (``%s'') as %s ref while ``strict refs'' in use, Cannot resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s', Constant subroutine %s redefined, Constant subroutine %s undefined, Copy method did not return a reference, Died, Exiting pseudo-block via %s, Identifier too long, Illegal character %s (carriage return), Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s, Integer overflow in hex number, Integer overflow in octal number, internal error: glob failed, Invalid conversion in %s: ``%s'', Invalid type in pack: '%s', Invalid type in unpack: '%s', Name ``%s::%s'' used only once: possible typo, Null picture in formline, Offset outside string, Out of memory!, Out of memory during request for %s, panic: frexp, Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list, Possible attempt to separate words with commas, Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}, Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading `%s' in %s, Too late for ``-T'' option, untie attempted while %d inner references still exist, Unrecognized character %s, Unsupported function fork, Use of ``$$<digit>'' to mean ``${$}<digit>'' is deprecated, Value of %s can be ``0''; test with defined(), Variable ``%s'' may be unavailable, Variable ``%s'' will not stay shared, Warning: something's wrong, Ill-formed logical name |%s| in prime_env_iter, Got an error from DosAllocMem, Malformed PERLLIB_PREFIX, PERL_SH_DIR too long, Process terminated by SIG%s

    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    perlartistic - the Perl Artistic License

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The ``Artistic License''
    Preamble
    Definitions

    ``Package'', ``Standard Version'', ``Copyright Holder'', ``You'', ``Reasonable copying fee'', ``Freely Available''

    Conditions

    a), b), c), d), a), b), c), d)

    perlgpl - the GNU General Public License, version 2

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE

    perlaix, README.aix - Perl version 5 on IBM Unix (AIX) systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Compiling Perl 5 on AIX
    OS level
    Building Dynamic Extensions on AIX
    The IBM ANSI C Compiler
    The usenm option
    Using GNU's gcc for building perl
    Using Large Files with Perl
    Threaded Perl
  • -bit Perl
    AIX 4.2 and extensions using C++ with statics
  • AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlamiga - Perl under Amiga OS

    NOTE
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on AmigaOS

    Unix emulation for AmigaOS: ixemul.library, Version of Amiga OS

    Starting Perl programs under AmigaOS
    Shortcomings of Perl under AmigaOS
    INSTALLATION
    Accessing documentation
    Manpages for Perl on AmigaOS
    Perl HTML Documentation on AmigaOS
    Perl GNU Info Files on AmigaOS
    Perl LaTeX Documentation on AmigaOS
    BUILDING PERL ON AMIGAOS
    Build Prerequisites for Perl on AmigaOS
    Getting the Perl Source for AmigaOS
    Making Perl on AmigaOS
    Testing Perl on AmigaOS
    Installing the built Perl on AmigaOS
    PERL 5.8.0 BROKEN IN AMIGAOS
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    perlapollo, README.apollo - Perl version 5 on Apollo DomainOS

    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    perlbeos, README.beos - Perl version 5.8+ on BeOS

    DESCRIPTION
    BUILD AND INSTALL
    Requirements
    Configure
    Build
    Install
    KNOWN PROBLEMS
    CONTACT

    perlbs2000, README.BS2000 - building and installing Perl for BS2000.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    gzip on BS2000
    bison on BS2000
    Unpacking Perl Distribution on BS2000
    Compiling Perl on BS2000
    Testing Perl on BS2000
    Installing Perl on BS2000
    Using Perl in the Posix-Shell of BS2000
    Using Perl in ``native'' BS2000
    Floating point anomalies on BS2000
    Using PerlIO and different encodings on ASCII and EBCDIC partitions
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO
    Mailing list
    HISTORY

    perlce - Perl for WinCE

    DESCRIPTION
    BUILD
    Tools & SDK

    Microsoft Embedded Visual Tools, Microsoft Visual C++, Rainer Keuchel's celib-sources, Rainer Keuchel's console-sources

    Make

    go to ./wince subdirectory, edit file compile.bat, run compile.bat, run
    compile.bat dist

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    AUTHORS

    perlcygwin, README.cygwin - Perl for Cygwin

    SYNOPSIS
    PREREQUISITES FOR COMPILING PERL ON CYGWIN
    Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
    Cygwin Configuration

    PATH, nroff, Permissions

    CONFIGURE PERL ON CYGWIN
    Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
    Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin

    -lcrypt, -lgdbm (use GDBM_File), -ldb (use DB_File), -lcygipc (use IPC::SysV), -lutil

    Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin

    -Uusedl, -Uusemymalloc, -Uuseperlio, -Dusemultiplicity, -Duse64bitint, -Duselongdouble, -Dusethreads, -Duselargefiles, -Dmksymlinks

    Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin

    dlsym(), Win9x and d_eofnblk, Compiler/Preprocessor defines

    MAKE ON CYGWIN
    Errors on Cygwin
    ld2 on Cygwin
    TEST ON CYGWIN
    File Permissions on Cygwin
    NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems
    fork() failures in io_* tests
    Specific features of the Cygwin port
    Script Portability on Cygwin

    Pathnames, Text/Binary, PerlIO, .exe, cygwin vs. windows process ids, chown(), Miscellaneous

    Prebuilt methods:

    Cwd::cwd, Cygwin::pid_to_winpid, Cygwin::winpid_to_pid

    INSTALL PERL ON CYGWIN
    MANIFEST ON CYGWIN

    Documentation, Build, Configure, Make, Install, Tests, Compiled Perl Source, Compiled Module Source, Perl Modules/Scripts

    BUGS ON CYGWIN
    AUTHORS
    HISTORY

    perldgux - Perl under DG/UX.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUILDING PERL ON DG/UX
    Non-threaded Perl on DG/UX
    Threaded Perl on DG/UX
    Testing Perl on DG/UX
    Installing the built perl on DG/UX
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perldos - Perl under DOS, W31, W95.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Prerequisites for Compiling Perl on DOS

    DJGPP, Pthreads

    Shortcomings of Perl under DOS
    Building Perl on DOS
    Testing Perl on DOS
    Installation of Perl on DOS
    BUILDING AND INSTALLING MODULES ON DOS
    Building Prerequisites for Perl on DOS
    Unpacking CPAN Modules on DOS
    Building Non-XS Modules on DOS
    Building XS Modules on DOS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perlepoc, README.epoc - Perl for EPOC

    SYNOPSIS
    INTRODUCTION
    INSTALLING PERL ON EPOC
    STARTING PERL ON EPOC
    Editors on Epoc
    Features of Perl on Epoc
    Restrictions of Perl on Epoc
    Compiling Perl 5 on the EPOC cross compiling environment
    SUPPORT STATUS OF PERL ON EPOC
    AUTHOR
    LAST UPDATE

    perlfreebsd, README.freebsd - Perl version 5 on FreeBSD systems

    DESCRIPTION
    FreeBSD core dumps from readdir_r with ithreads
    $^X doesn't always contain a full path in FreeBSD
    Perl will no longer be part of ``base FreeBSD''
    AUTHOR

    perlhpux, README.hpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
    Using perl from HP's porting centre
    Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
    PA-RISC
    Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
    PA-RISC 1.0
    PA-RISC 1.1
    PA-RISC 2.0
    Itanium Processor Family and HP-UX
    Itanium & Itanium 2
    Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
    The HP ANSI C Compiler
    The GNU C Compiler
    Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
    Threaded Perl on HP-UX
  • -bit Perl on HP-UX
    Oracle on HP-UX
    GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
    NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
    perl -P and // and HP-UX
    HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
  • nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlhurd, README.hurd - Perl version 5 on Hurd

    DESCRIPTION
    Known Problems with Perl on Hurd
    AUTHOR

    perlirix, README.irix - Perl version 5 on Irix systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Building 32-bit Perl in Irix
    Building 64-bit Perl in Irix
    About Compiler Versions of Irix
    Linker Problems in Irix
    Malloc in Irix
    Building with threads in Irix
    Irix 5.3
    AUTHOR

    perllinux, README.linux - Perl version 5 on Linux systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Experimental Support for Sun Studio Compilers for Linux OS
    AUTHOR

    perlmachten, README.machten - Perl version 5 on Power MachTen systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Perl version 5.8.x and greater not supported
    Compiling Perl 5.6.x on MachTen
    Failures during make test on MachTen

    op/lexassign.t, pragma/warnings.t

    Building external modules on MachTen
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlmacos, README.macos - Perl under Mac OS (Classic)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlmacosx, README.macosx - Perl under Mac OS X

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Installation Prefix
    libperl and Prebinding
    Updating Apple-supplied Perl
  • -bit Perl
    Intel processor support
    Universal binaries
    Known problems
    MacPerl
    Carbon
    Cocoa
  • Starting From Scratch
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    perlmint, README.mint - Perl version 5 on Atari MiNT

    DESCRIPTION
    Known problems with Perl on MiNT
    AUTHOR

    perlmpeix, README.mpeix - Perl/iX for HP e3000 MPE

    SYNOPSIS
    NOTE
    Binary distribution from HP
    What's New in Perl for MPE/iX
    Welcome to Perl/iX
    System Requirements for Perl/iX
    How to Obtain Perl/iX
    Perl/iX Distribution Contents Highlights

    README, INSTALL, LIBSHP3K, PERL, .cpan/, lib/, man/, public_html/feedback.cgi, src/perl-5.6.0-mpe

    How to Compile Perl/iX
     4,  6
    Getting Started with Perl/iX
    MPE/iX Implementation Considerations
    Known Perl/iX Bugs Under Investigation
    Perl/iX To-Do List
    Perl/iX Change History
    AUTHOR

    perlnetware - Perl for NetWare

    DESCRIPTION
    BUILD
    Tools & SDK
    Setup

    SetNWBld.bat, Buildtype.bat

    Make
    Interpreter
    Extensions
    INSTALL
    BUILD NEW EXTENSIONS
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    AUTHORS
    DATE

    perlopenbsd, README.openbsd - Perl version 5 on OpenBSD systems

    DESCRIPTION
    OpenBSD core dumps from getprotobyname_r and getservbyname_r with ithreads
    AUTHOR

    perlos2 - Perl under OS/2, DOS, Win0.3*, Win0.95 and WinNT.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Target
    Other OSes
    Prerequisites

    EMX, RSX, HPFS, pdksh

    Starting Perl programs under OS/2 (and DOS and...)
    Starting OS/2 (and DOS) programs under Perl
    Frequently asked questions
    ``It does not work''
    I cannot run external programs
    I cannot embed perl into my program, or use perl.dll from my program.

    Is your program EMX-compiled with -Zmt -Zcrtdll?, Did you use the ExtUtils::Embed manpage?

    `` and pipe-open do not work under DOS.
    Cannot start find.exe "pattern" file
    INSTALLATION
    Automatic binary installation

    PERL_BADLANG, PERL_BADFREE, Config.pm

    Manual binary installation

    Perl VIO and PM executables (dynamically linked), Perl_ VIO executable (statically linked), Executables for Perl utilities, Main Perl library, Additional Perl modules, Tools to compile Perl modules, Manpages for Perl and utilities, Manpages for Perl modules, Source for Perl documentation, Perl manual in .INF format, Pdksh

    Warning
    Accessing documentation
    OS/2 .INF file
    Plain text
    Manpages
    HTML
    GNU info files
    PDF files
    LaTeX docs
    BUILD
    The short story
    Prerequisites
    Getting perl source
    Application of the patches
    Hand-editing
    Making
    Testing

    A lot of bad free, Process terminated by SIGTERM/SIGINT, op/fs.t, op/stat.t

    Installing the built perl
    a.out-style build
    Building a binary distribution
    Building custom .EXE files
    Making executables with a custom collection of statically loaded extensions
    Making executables with a custom search-paths
    Build FAQ
    Some / became \ in pdksh.
    'errno' - unresolved external
    Problems with tr or sed
    Some problem (forget which ;-)
    Library ... not found
    Segfault in make
    op/sprintf test failure
    Specific (mis)features of OS/2 port
    setpriority, getpriority
    system()
    extproc on the first line
    Additional modules:
    Prebuilt methods:

    File::Copy::syscopy, DynaLoader::mod2fname, Cwd::current_drive(), Cwd::sys_chdir(name), Cwd::change_drive(name), Cwd::sys_is_absolute(name), Cwd::sys_is_rooted(name), Cwd::sys_is_relative(name), Cwd::sys_cwd(name), Cwd::sys_abspath(name, dir), Cwd::extLibpath([type]), Cwd::extLibpath_set( path [, type ] ), OS2::Error(do_harderror,do_exception), OS2::Errors2Drive(drive), OS2::SysInfo(), OS2::BootDrive(), OS2::MorphPM(serve), OS2::UnMorphPM(serve), OS2::Serve_Messages(force), OS2::Process_Messages(force [, cnt]), OS2::_control87(new,mask), OS2::get_control87(), OS2::set_control87_em(new=MCW_EM,mask=MCW_EM), OS2::DLLname([how [, \&xsub]])

    Prebuilt variables:

    $OS2::emx_rev, $OS2::emx_env, $OS2::os_ver, $OS2::is_aout, $OS2::can_fork, $OS2::nsyserror

    Misfeatures
    Modifications

    popen, tmpnam, tmpfile, ctermid, stat, mkdir, rmdir, flock

    Identifying DLLs
    Centralized management of resources

    HAB, HMQ, Treating errors reported by OS/2 API, CheckOSError(expr), CheckWinError(expr), SaveWinError(expr), SaveCroakWinError(expr,die,name1,name2), WinError_2_Perl_rc, FillWinError, FillOSError(rc), Loading DLLs and ordinals in DLLs

    Perl flavors
    perl.exe
    perl_.exe
    perl__.exe
    perl___.exe
    Why strange names?
    Why dynamic linking?
    Why chimera build?
    ENVIRONMENT
    PERLLIB_PREFIX
    PERL_BADLANG
    PERL_BADFREE
    PERL_SH_DIR
    USE_PERL_FLOCK
    TMP or TEMP
    Evolution
    Text-mode filehandles
    Priorities
    DLL name mangling: pre 5.6.2
    DLL name mangling: 5.6.2 and beyond

    Global DLLs, specific DLLs, BEGINLIBPATH and ENDLIBPATH, . from LIBPATH

    DLL forwarder generation
    Threading
    Calls to external programs
    Memory allocation
    Threads

    COND_WAIT, os2.c

    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    perlos390, README.os390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Tools
    Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
    Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
    Configure Perl on OS/390
    Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
    Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
    Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
    Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
    Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
    Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
    Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO
    Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
    HISTORY

    perlos400, README.os400 - Perl version 5 on OS/400

    DESCRIPTION
    Compiling Perl for OS/400 PASE
    Installing Perl in OS/400 PASE
    Using Perl in OS/400 PASE
    Known Problems
    Perl on ILE
    AUTHORS

    perlplan9 - Plan 9-specific documentation for Perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Invoking Perl
    What's in Plan 9 Perl
    What's not in Plan 9 Perl
    Perl5 Functions not currently supported in Plan 9 Perl
    Signals in Plan 9 Perl
    COMPILING AND INSTALLING PERL ON PLAN 9
    Installing Perl Documentation on Plan 9
    BUGS
    Revision date
    AUTHOR

    perlqnx, README.qnx - Perl version 5 on QNX

    DESCRIPTION
    Required Software for Compiling Perl on QNX4

    /bin/sh, ar, nm, cpp, make

    Outstanding Issues with Perl on QNX4
    QNX auxiliary files

    qnx/ar, qnx/cpp

    Outstanding issues with perl under QNX6
    AUTHOR

    perlsolaris, README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Solaris Version Numbers.
    RESOURCES

    Solaris FAQ, Precompiled Binaries, Solaris Documentation

    SETTING UP
    File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
    Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.
    Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
    RUN CONFIGURE.
    1. -bit perl on Solaris.
      Threads in perl on Solaris.
      Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
    MAKE PROBLEMS.

    Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld, ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:, dlopen: stub interception failed, #error ``No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified'', sh: ar: not found, warning: dead part of constant expression is nonconstant

    MAKE TEST
    op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
    nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
    PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS.
    RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS.
    Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
    SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
    SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
    Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
    BSD::Resource on Solaris
    Net::SSLeay on Solaris
    SunOS 4.x
    AUTHOR

    perltru64, README.tru64 - Perl version 5 on Tru64 (formerly known as Digital UNIX formerly known as DEC OSF/1) systems

    DESCRIPTION
    Compiling Perl 5 on Tru64
    Using Large Files with Perl on Tru64
    Threaded Perl on Tru64
    Long Doubles on Tru64
    DB_File tests failing on Tru64
  • -bit Perl on Tru64
    Warnings about floating-point overflow when compiling Perl on Tru64
  • Testing Perl on Tru64
    ext/ODBM_File/odbm Test Failing With Static Builds
    Perl Fails Because Of Unresolved Symbol sockatmark
    AUTHOR

    perluts - Perl under UTS

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUILDING PERL ON UTS
    Installing the built perl on UTS
    AUTHOR

    perlvmesa, README.vmesa - building and installing Perl for VM/ESA.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Unpacking Perl Distribution on VM/ESA
    Setup Perl and utilities on VM/ESA
    Configure Perl on VM/ESA
    Testing Anomalies of Perl on VM/ESA
    Usage Hints for Perl on VM/ESA
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO
    Mailing list for Perl on VM/ESA

    perlvms - VMS-specific documentation for Perl

    DESCRIPTION
    Installation
    Organization of Perl Images
    Core Images
    Perl Extensions
    Installing static extensions
    Installing dynamic extensions
    File specifications
    Syntax
    Wildcard expansion
    Pipes
    PERL5LIB and PERLLIB
    Command line
    I/O redirection and backgrounding
    Command line switches

    -i, -S, -u

    Perl functions

    File tests, backticks, binmode FILEHANDLE, crypt PLAINTEXT, USER, dump, exec LIST, fork, getpwent, getpwnam, getpwuid, gmtime, kill, qx//, select (system call), stat EXPR, system LIST, time, times, unlink LIST, utime LIST, waitpid PID,FLAGS

    Perl variables

    %ENV, CRTL_ENV, CLISYM_[LOCAL], Any other string, $!, $^E, $?, $|

    Standard modules with VMS-specific differences
    SDBM_File
    Revision date
    AUTHOR

    perlvos, README.vos - Perl for Stratus VOS

    SYNOPSIS
    Multiple methods to build perl for VOS
    Stratus POSIX Support
    INSTALLING PERL IN VOS
    Compiling Perl 5 on VOS
    Installing Perl 5 on VOS
    USING PERL IN VOS
    Unimplemented Features of Perl on VOS
    Restrictions of Perl on VOS
    Handling of underflow and overflow
    TEST STATUS
    SUPPORT STATUS
    AUTHOR
    LAST UPDATE

    perlwin32 - Perl under Windows

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Setting Up Perl on Win32

    Make, Command Shell, Borland C++, Microsoft Visual C++, Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003, Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler, MinGW release 3 with gcc, MinGW release 1 with gcc

    Building
    Testing Perl on Win32
    Installation of Perl on Win32
    Usage Hints for Perl on Win32

    Environment Variables, File Globbing, Using perl from the command line, Building Extensions, Command-line Wildcard Expansion, Win32 Specific Extensions, Notes on 64-bit Windows

    Running Perl Scripts
    Miscellaneous Things
    BUGS AND CAVEATS
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    AUTHORS

    Gary Ng <71564.1743@CompuServe.COM>, Gurusamy Sarathy <gsar@activestate.com>, Nick Ing-Simmons <nick@ing-simmons.net>, Jan Dubois <jand@activestate.com>, Steve Hay <steve.hay@uk.radan.com>

    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY


    PRAGMA DOCUMENTATION

    attrs - set/get attributes of a subroutine (deprecated)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    method, locked

    re - Perl pragma to alter regular expression behaviour

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    threadshared::shared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORT
    FUNCTIONS

    share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_wait CONDVAR, LOCKVAR, cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT, cond_timedwait CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE

    NOTES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    threads - Perl extension allowing use of interpreter based threads from perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $thread = threads->create(function, LIST), $thread->join, $thread->detach, threads->self, $thread->tid, threads->object( tid ), threads->yield();, threads->list();, async BLOCK;

    WARNINGS

    A thread exited while %d other threads were still running

    TODO
    BUGS

    Parent-Child threads, tid is I32, Returning objects, Creating threads inside BEGIN blocks, PERL_OLD_SIGNALS are not threadsafe, will not be

    AUTHOR and COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    attributes - get/set subroutine or variable attributes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Built-in Attributes

    locked, method, lvalue

    Available Subroutines

    get, reftype

    Package-specific Attribute Handling

    FETCH_type_ATTRIBUTES, MODIFY_type_ATTRIBUTES

    Syntax of Attribute Lists
    EXPORTS
    Default exports
    Available exports
    Export tags defined
    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO

    autouse - postpone load of modules until a function is used

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    base - Establish IS-A relationship with base classes at compile time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Base class package ``%s'' is empty

    HISTORY
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO

    bigint - Transparent BigInteger support for Perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Options

    a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or version

    Math Library
    Internal Format
    Sign
    Methods
    Caveat
    MODULES USED
    EXAMPLES
    LICENSE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    bignum - Transparent BigNumber support for Perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Options

    a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or version

    Methods
    Caveat

    inf(), NaN(), upgrade()

    MATH LIBRARY
    INTERNAL FORMAT
    SIGN
    MODULES USED
    EXAMPLES
    LICENSE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    bigrat - Transparent BigNumber/BigRational support for Perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Modules Used
    Math Library
    Sign
    Methods
    Cavaet
    Options

    a or accuracy, p or precision, t or trace, l or lib, v or version

    EXAMPLES
            perl -Mbigrat -le 'print sqrt(33)'
            perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 2*255'
            perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 4.5+2*255'
            perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 3/7 + 5/7 + 8/3'       
            perl -Mbigrat -le 'print 12->is_odd()';
    LICENSE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    blib - Use MakeMaker's uninstalled version of a package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    bytes - Perl pragma to force byte semantics rather than character semantics

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    charnames - define character names for \N{named} string literal escapes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CUSTOM TRANSLATORS
    CUSTOM ALIASES
    Anonymous hashes
    Alias file
    Alias shortcut
    charnames::viacode(code)
    charnames::vianame(name)
    ALIASES
    ILLEGAL CHARACTERS
    BUGS

    constant - Perl pragma to declare constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    List constants
    Defining multiple constants at once
    Magic constants
    TECHNICAL NOTES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    diagnostics, splain - produce verbose warning diagnostics

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The diagnostics Pragma
    The splain Program
    EXAMPLES
    INTERNALS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    Literal Conversions
    PerlIO layers for STD(IN|OUT)
    Implicit upgrading for byte strings
    FEATURES THAT REQUIRE 5.8.1

    ``NON-EUC'' doublebyte encodings, tr//, DATA pseudo-filehandle

    USAGE

    use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;, use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;, no encoding;

    The Filter Option
    Filter-related changes at Encode version 1.87
    CAVEATS
    NOT SCOPED
    DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS
    tr/// with ranges

    Legend of characters above

    EXAMPLE - Greekperl
    KNOWN PROBLEMS

    literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes, EBCDIC, format

    The Logic of :locale
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    fields - compile-time class fields

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    new, phash

    SEE ALSO

    filetest - Perl pragma to control the filetest permission operators

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    subpragma access

    if - use a Perl module if a condition holds

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    integer - Perl pragma to use integer arithmetic instead of floating point

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    less - perl pragma to request less of something from the compiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    lib - manipulate @INC at compile time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Adding directories to @INC
    Deleting directories from @INC
    Restoring original @INC
    CAVEATS
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    locale - Perl pragma to use and avoid POSIX locales for built-in operations

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    open - perl pragma to set default PerlIO layers for input and output

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NONPERLIO FUNCTIONALITY
    IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
    SEE ALSO

    ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    overload - Package for overloading Perl operations

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Declaration of overloaded functions
    Calling Conventions for Binary Operations

    FALSE, TRUE, undef

    Calling Conventions for Unary Operations
    Calling Conventions for Mutators

    ++ and --, x= and other assignment versions

    Overloadable Operations

    Arithmetic operations, Comparison operations, Bit operations, Increment and decrement, Transcendental functions, Boolean, string and numeric conversion, Iteration, Dereferencing, Special

    Inheritance and overloading

    Strings as values of use overload directive, Overloading of an operation is inherited by derived classes

    SPECIAL SYMBOLS FOR use overload
    Last Resort
    Fallback

    undef, TRUE, defined, but FALSE

    Copy Constructor

    Example

    MAGIC AUTOGENERATION

    Assignment forms of arithmetic operations, Conversion operations, Increment and decrement, abs($a), Unary minus, Negation, Concatenation, Comparison operations, Iterator, Dereferencing, Copy operator

    Losing overloading
    Run-time Overloading
    Public functions

    overload::StrVal(arg), overload::Overloaded(arg), overload::Method(obj,op)

    Overloading constants

    integer, float, binary, q, qr

    IMPLEMENTATION
    Metaphor clash
    Cookbook
    Two-face scalars
    Two-face references
    Symbolic calculator
    Really symbolic calculator
    AUTHOR
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Odd number of arguments for overload::constant, `%s' is not an overloadable type, `%s' is not a code reference

    BUGS

    sigtrap - Perl pragma to enable simple signal handling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS
    SIGNAL HANDLERS

    stack-trace, die, handler your-handler

    SIGNAL LISTS

    normal-signals, error-signals, old-interface-signals

    OTHER

    untrapped, any, signal, number

    EXAMPLES

    sort - perl pragma to control sort() behaviour

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEATS

    strict - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe constructs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    strict refs, strict vars, strict subs

    HISTORY

    subs - Perl pragma to predeclare sub names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    threadshared, threads::shared - Perl extension for sharing data structures between threads

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORT
    FUNCTIONS

    share VARIABLE, lock VARIABLE, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_wait CONDVAR, LOCKVAR, cond_timedwait VARIABLE, ABS_TIMEOUT, cond_timedwait CONDVAR, ABS_TIMEOUT, LOCKVAR, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE

    NOTES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    utf8 - Perl pragma to enable/disable UTF-8 (or UTF-EBCDIC) in source code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Utility functions

    $num_octets = utf8::upgrade($string), $success = utf8::downgrade($string[, FAIL_OK]), utf8::encode($string), utf8::decode($string), $flag = utf8::is_utf8(STRING), $flag = utf8::valid(STRING)

    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    vars - Perl pragma to predeclare global variable names (obsolete)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    vmsish - Perl pragma to control VMS-specific language features

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    vmsish status, vmsish exit, vmsish time, vmsish hushed

    warnings - Perl pragma to control optional warnings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    use warnings::register, warnings::enabled(), warnings::enabled($category), warnings::enabled($object), warnings::warn($message), warnings::warn($category, $message), warnings::warn($object, $message), warnings::warnif($message), warnings::warnif($category, $message), warnings::warnif($object, $message)

    warnings::register - warnings import function

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION


    MODULE DOCUMENTATION

    AnyDBM_File - provide framework for multiple DBMs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DBM Comparisons

    [0], [1], [2], [3]

    SEE ALSO

    Attribute::Handlers - Simpler definition of attribute handlers

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

    Typed lexicals
    Type-specific attribute handlers
    Non-interpretive attribute handlers
    Phase-specific attribute handlers
    Attributes as tie interfaces
    EXAMPLES
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Bad attribute type: ATTR(%s), Attribute handler %s doesn't handle %s attributes, Declaration of %s attribute in package %s may clash with future reserved word, Can't have two ATTR specifiers on one subroutine, Can't autotie a %s, Internal error: %s symbol went missing, Won't be able to apply END handler

    AUTHOR
    BUGS
    COPYRIGHT

    AutoLoader - load subroutines only on demand

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Subroutine Stubs
    Using AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
    Overriding AutoLoader's AUTOLOAD Subroutine
    Package Lexicals
    Not Using AutoLoader
    AutoLoader vs. SelfLoader
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO

    AutoSplit - split a package for autoloading

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $keep, $check, $modtime

    Multiple packages
    DIAGNOSTICS

    B - The Perl Compiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OVERVIEW
    Utility Functions
    Functions Returning B::SV, B::AV, B::HV, and B::CV objects

    sv_undef, sv_yes, sv_no, svref_2object(SVREF), amagic_generation, init_av, check_av, begin_av, end_av, comppadlist, regex_padav, main_cv

    Functions for Examining the Symbol Table

    walksymtable(SYMREF, METHOD, RECURSE, PREFIX)

    Functions Returning B::OP objects or for walking op trees

    main_root, main_start, walkoptree(OP, METHOD), walkoptree_debug(DEBUG)

    Miscellaneous Utility Functions

    ppname(OPNUM), hash(STR), cast_I32(I), minus_c, cstring(STR), perlstring(STR), class(OBJ), threadsv_names

    OVERVIEW OF CLASSES
    SV-RELATED CLASSES
    B::SV Methods

    REFCNT, FLAGS, object_2svref

    B::IV Methods

    IV, IVX, UVX, int_value, needs64bits, packiv

    B::NV Methods

    NV, NVX

    B::RV Methods

    RV

    B::PV Methods

    PV, RV, PVX

    B::PVMG Methods

    MAGIC, SvSTASH

    B::MAGIC Methods

    MOREMAGIC, precomp, PRIVATE, TYPE, FLAGS, OBJ, PTR, REGEX

    B::PVLV Methods

    TARGOFF, TARGLEN, TYPE, TARG

    B::BM Methods

    USEFUL, PREVIOUS, RARE, TABLE

    B::GV Methods

    is_empty, NAME, SAFENAME, STASH, SV, IO, FORM, AV, HV, EGV, CV, CVGEN, LINE, FILE, FILEGV, GvREFCNT, FLAGS

    B::IO Methods

    LINES, PAGE, PAGE_LEN, LINES_LEFT, TOP_NAME, TOP_GV, FMT_NAME, FMT_GV, BOTTOM_NAME, BOTTOM_GV, SUBPROCESS, IoTYPE, IoFLAGS, IsSTD

    B::AV Methods

    FILL, MAX, OFF, ARRAY, ARRAYelt, AvFLAGS

    B::CV Methods

    STASH, START, ROOT, GV, FILE, DEPTH, PADLIST, OUTSIDE, OUTSIDE_SEQ, XSUB, XSUBANY, CvFLAGS, const_sv

    B::HV Methods

    FILL, MAX, KEYS, RITER, NAME, PMROOT, ARRAY

    OP-RELATED CLASSES
    B::OP Methods

    next, sibling, name, ppaddr, desc, targ, type, opt, static, flags, private, spare

    B::UNOP METHOD

    first

    B::BINOP METHOD

    last

    B::LOGOP METHOD

    other

    B::LISTOP METHOD

    children

    B::PMOP Methods

    pmreplroot, pmreplstart, pmnext, pmregexp, pmflags, pmdynflags, pmpermflags, precomp, pmoffset

    B::SVOP METHOD

    sv, gv

    B::PADOP METHOD

    padix

    B::PVOP METHOD

    pv

    B::LOOP Methods

    redoop, nextop, lastop

    B::COP Methods

    label, stash, stashpv, file, cop_seq, arybase, line, warnings, io

    AUTHOR

    B::Asmdata - Autogenerated data about Perl ops, used to generate bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    %insn_data, @insn_name, @optype, @specialsv_name

    AUTHOR

    B::Assembler - Assemble Perl bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHORS

    B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions

    find_leaders

    AUTHOR

    B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    OPTIONS

    -b, -H, -k, -ooutfile, -s

    KNOWN BUGS
    NOTICE
    AUTHORS

    B::C - Perl compiler's C backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS

    -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -D, -Do, -Dc, -DA, -DC, -DM, -f, -fcog, -fsave-data, -fppaddr, -fwarn-sv, -fuse-script-name, -fsave-sig-hash, -On, -O0, -O1, -O2, -llimit

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::CC - Perl compiler's optimized C translation backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS

    -ofilename, -v, --, -uPackname, -mModulename, -D, -Dr, -DO, -Ds, -Dp, -Dq, -Dl, -Dt, -f, -ffreetmps-each-bblock, -ffreetmps-each-loop, -fomit-taint, -On

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    DIFFERENCES
    Loops
    Context of ``..''
    Arithmetic
    Deprecated features
    AUTHOR

    B::Concise - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    OPTIONS
    Options for Opcode Ordering

    -basic, -exec, -tree

    Options for Line-Style

    -concise, -terse, -linenoise, -debug, -env

    Options for tree-specific formatting

    -compact, -loose, -vt, -ascii

    Options controlling sequence numbering

    -basen, -bigendian, -littleendian

    Other options

    -main, -nomain, -nobanner, -banner, -banneris => subref

    Option Stickiness
    ABBREVIATIONS
    OP class abbreviations
    OP flags abbreviations
    FORMATTING SPECIFICATIONS
    Special Patterns

    (x(exec_text;basic_text)x), (*(text)*), (*(text1;text2)*), (?(text1#varText2)?), ~

    # Variables

    #var, #varN, #Var, #addr, #arg, #class, #classsym, #coplabel, #exname, #extarg, #firstaddr, #flags, #flagval, #hyphseq, #label, #lastaddr, #name, #NAME, #next, #nextaddr, #noise, #private, #privval, #seq, #seqnum, #opt, #static, #sibaddr, #svaddr, #svclass, #svval, #targ, #targarg, #targarglife, #typenum

    Using B::Concise outside of the O framework
    Example: Altering Concise Renderings
    set_style()
    set_style_standard($name)
    add_style()
    add_callback()
    Running B::Concise::compile()
    B::Concise::reset_sequence()
    Errors
    AUTHOR

    B::Debug - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing debug info about ops

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Deparse - Perl compiler backend to produce perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS

    -d, -fFILE, -l, -p, -P, -q, -sLETTERS, C, iNUMBER, T, vSTRING., -xLEVEL

    USING B::Deparse AS A MODULE
    Synopsis
    Description
    new
    ambient_pragmas

    strict, $[, bytes, utf8, integer, re, warnings, hint_bits, warning_bits

    coderef2text
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::Disassembler - Disassemble Perl bytecode

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Lint - Perl lint

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS AND LINT CHECKS

    context, implicit-read and implicit-write, bare-subs, dollar-underscore, private-names, undefined-subs, regexp-variables, all, none

    NON LINT-CHECK OPTIONS

    -u Package

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::O, O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONVENTIONS
    IMPLEMENTATION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    B::Showlex - Show lexical variables used in functions or files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    OPTIONS
    SEE ALSO
    TODO
    AUTHOR

    B::Stackobj - Helper module for CC backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Stash - show what stashes are loaded

    B::Terse - Walk Perl syntax tree, printing terse info about ops

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    B::Xref - Generates cross reference reports for Perl programs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPTIONS

    -oFILENAME, -r, -d, -D[tO]

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Bblock, B::Bblock - Walk basic blocks

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions

    find_leaders

    AUTHOR

    Benchmark - benchmark running times of Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods

    new, debug, iters

    Standard Exports

    timeit(COUNT, CODE), timethis ( COUNT, CODE, [ TITLE, [ STYLE ]] ), timethese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), timediff ( T1, T2 ), timestr ( TIMEDIFF, [ STYLE, [ FORMAT ] ] )

    Optional Exports

    clearcache ( COUNT ), clearallcache ( ), cmpthese ( COUNT, CODEHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), cmpthese ( RESULTSHASHREF, [ STYLE ] ), countit(TIME, CODE), disablecache ( ), enablecache ( ), timesum ( T1, T2 )

    :hireswallclock
    NOTES
    EXAMPLES
    INHERITANCE
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    MODIFICATION HISTORY

    ByteLoader - load byte compiled perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Bytecode, B::Bytecode - Perl compiler's bytecode backend

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    OPTIONS

    -b, -H, -k, -ooutfile, -s

    KNOWN BUGS
    NOTICE
    AUTHORS

    CGI - Simple Common Gateway Interface Class

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    PROGRAMMING STYLE
    CALLING CGI.PM ROUTINES
    CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT (OBJECT-ORIENTED STYLE):
    CREATING A NEW QUERY OBJECT FROM AN INPUT FILE
    FETCHING A LIST OF KEYWORDS FROM THE QUERY:
    FETCHING THE NAMES OF ALL THE PARAMETERS PASSED TO YOUR SCRIPT:
    FETCHING THE VALUE OR VALUES OF A SINGLE NAMED PARAMETER:
    SETTING THE VALUE(S) OF A NAMED PARAMETER:
    APPENDING ADDITIONAL VALUES TO A NAMED PARAMETER:
    IMPORTING ALL PARAMETERS INTO A NAMESPACE:
    DELETING A PARAMETER COMPLETELY:
    DELETING ALL PARAMETERS:
    HANDLING NON-URLENCODED ARGUMENTS
    DIRECT ACCESS TO THE PARAMETER LIST:
    FETCHING THE PARAMETER LIST AS A HASH:
    SAVING THE STATE OF THE SCRIPT TO A FILE:
    RETRIEVING CGI ERRORS
    USING THE FUNCTION-ORIENTED INTERFACE

    :cgi, :form, :html2, :html3, :html4, :netscape, :html, :standard, :all

    PRAGMAS

    -any, -compile, -nosticky, -tabindex, -no_undef_params, -no_xhtml, -nph, -newstyle_urls, -oldstyle_urls, -autoload, -no_debug, -debug, -private_tempfiles

    SPECIAL FORMS FOR IMPORTING HTML-TAG FUNCTIONS

    1. start_table() (generates a <table> tag), 2. end_table() (generates a </table> tag), 3. start_ul() (generates a <ul> tag), 4. end_ul() (generates a </ul> tag)

    GENERATING DYNAMIC DOCUMENTS
    CREATING A STANDARD HTTP HEADER:
    GENERATING A REDIRECTION HEADER
    CREATING THE HTML DOCUMENT HEADER

    Parameters:, 4, 5, 6..

    ENDING THE HTML DOCUMENT:
    CREATING A SELF-REFERENCING URL THAT PRESERVES STATE INFORMATION:
    OBTAINING THE SCRIPT'S URL

    -absolute, -relative, -full, -path (-path_info), -query (-query_string), -base, -rewrite

    MIXING POST AND URL PARAMETERS
    CREATING STANDARD HTML ELEMENTS:
    PROVIDING ARGUMENTS TO HTML SHORTCUTS
    THE DISTRIBUTIVE PROPERTY OF HTML SHORTCUTS
    HTML SHORTCUTS AND LIST INTERPOLATION
    NON-STANDARD HTML SHORTCUTS
    AUTOESCAPING HTML

    $escaped_string = escapeHTML(``unescaped string'');, $charset = charset([$charset]);, $flag = autoEscape([$flag]);

    PRETTY-PRINTING HTML
    CREATING FILL-OUT FORMS:
    CREATING AN ISINDEX TAG
    STARTING AND ENDING A FORM

    application/x-www-form-urlencoded, multipart/form-data

    FORM ELEMENTS

    -name, -value, -values, -tabindex, -id, -override, -onChange, -onFocus, -onBlur, -onMouseOver, -onMouseOut, -onSelect

    CREATING A TEXT FIELD

    Parameters

    CREATING A BIG TEXT FIELD
    CREATING A PASSWORD FIELD
    CREATING A FILE UPLOAD FIELD

    Parameters

    CREATING A POPUP MENU
    CREATING AN OPTION GROUP
    CREATING A SCROLLING LIST

    Parameters:

    CREATING A GROUP OF RELATED CHECKBOXES

    Parameters:

    CREATING A STANDALONE CHECKBOX

    Parameters:

    CREATING A RADIO BUTTON GROUP

    Parameters:

    CREATING A SUBMIT BUTTON

    Parameters:

    CREATING A RESET BUTTON
    CREATING A DEFAULT BUTTON
    CREATING A HIDDEN FIELD

    Parameters:

    CREATING A CLICKABLE IMAGE BUTTON

    Parameters:, 3. The third option (-align, optional) is an alignment type, and may be TOP, BOTTOM or MIDDLE

    CREATING A JAVASCRIPT ACTION BUTTON
    HTTP COOKIES

    1. an expiration time, 2. a domain, 3. a path, 4. a ``secure'' flag, -name, -value, -path, -domain, -expires, -secure

    WORKING WITH FRAMES

    1. Create a <Frameset> document, 2. Specify the destination for the document in the HTTP header, 3. Specify the destination for the document in the <form> tag

    SUPPORT FOR JAVASCRIPT

    onLoad, onUnload, onSubmit, onClick, onChange, onFocus, onBlur, onSelect, onMouseOver, onMouseOut

    LIMITED SUPPORT FOR CASCADING STYLE SHEETS
    DEBUGGING
    DUMPING OUT ALL THE NAME/VALUE PAIRS
    FETCHING ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES

    Accept(), raw_cookie(), user_agent(), path_info(), path_translated(), remote_host(), script_name() Return the script name as a partial URL, for self-refering scripts, referer(), auth_type (), server_name (), virtual_host (), server_port (), virtual_port (), server_software (), remote_user (), user_name (), request_method(), content_type(), http(), https()

    USING NPH SCRIPTS

    In the use statement, By calling the nph() method:, By using -nph parameters

    Server Push

    multipart_init(), multipart_start(), multipart_end(), multipart_final()

    Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks

    $CGI::POST_MAX, $CGI::DISABLE_UPLOADS, 1. On a script-by-script basis, 2. Globally for all scripts

    COMPATIBILITY WITH CGI-LIB.PL
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    CREDITS

    Matt Heffron (heffron@falstaff.css.beckman.com), James Taylor (james.taylor@srs.gov), Scott Anguish <sanguish@digifix.com>, Mike Jewell (mlj3u@virginia.edu), Timothy Shimmin (tes@kbs.citri.edu.au), Joergen Haegg (jh@axis.se), Laurent Delfosse (delfosse@delfosse.com), Richard Resnick (applepi1@aol.com), Craig Bishop (csb@barwonwater.vic.gov.au), Tony Curtis (tc@vcpc.univie.ac.at), Tim Bunce (Tim.Bunce@ig.co.uk), Tom Christiansen (tchrist@convex.com), Andreas Koenig (k@franz.ww.TU-Berlin.DE), Tim MacKenzie (Tim.MacKenzie@fulcrum.com.au), Kevin B. Hendricks (kbhend@dogwood.tyler.wm.edu), Stephen Dahmen (joyfire@inxpress.net), Ed Jordan (ed@fidalgo.net), David Alan Pisoni (david@cnation.com), Doug MacEachern (dougm@opengroup.org), Robin Houston (robin@oneworld.org), ...and many many more..

    A COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF A SIMPLE FORM-BASED SCRIPT
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Apache - Backward compatibility module for CGI.pm

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Carp, CGI::Carp - CGI routines for writing to the HTTPD (or other) error log

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    REDIRECTING ERROR MESSAGES
    MAKING PERL ERRORS APPEAR IN THE BROWSER WINDOW
    Changing the default message
    MAKING WARNINGS APPEAR AS HTML COMMENTS
    OVERRIDING THE NAME OF THE PROGRAM
    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Cookie - Interface to Netscape Cookies

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USING CGI::Cookie

    1. expiration date, 2. domain, 3. path, 4. secure flag

    Creating New Cookies
    Sending the Cookie to the Browser
    Recovering Previous Cookies
    Manipulating Cookies

    name(), value(), domain(), path(), expires()

    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Fast - CGI Interface for Fast CGI

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OTHER PIECES OF THE PUZZLE
    WRITING FASTCGI PERL SCRIPTS
    INSTALLING FASTCGI SCRIPTS
    USING FASTCGI SCRIPTS AS CGI SCRIPTS
    EXTERNAL FASTCGI SERVER INVOCATION

    FCGI_SOCKET_PATH, FCGI_LISTEN_QUEUE

    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Pretty - module to produce nicely formatted HTML code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Tags that won't be formatted
    Customizing the Indenting
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Push - Simple Interface to Server Push

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USING CGI::Push

    -next_page, -last_page, -type, -delay, -cookie, -target, -expires, -nph

    Heterogeneous Pages
    Changing the Page Delay on the Fly
    INSTALLING CGI::Push SCRIPTS
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Switch - Backward compatibility module for defunct CGI::Switch

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    CGI::Util - Internal utilities used by CGI module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR INFORMATION
    SEE ALSO

    CPAN - query, download and build perl modules from CPAN sites

    SYNOPSIS
    STATUS
    DESCRIPTION
    Interactive Mode

    Searching for authors, bundles, distribution files and modules, make, test, install, clean modules or distributions, get, readme, perldoc, look module or distribution, ls author, ls globbing_expresion, Signals

    CPAN::Shell
    autobundle
    recompile
    The four CPAN::* Classes: Author, Bundle, Module, Distribution
    Programmer's interface

    expand($type,@things), expandany(@things), Programming Examples

    Methods in the other Classes

    CPAN::Author::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Author::as_string(), CPAN::Author::email(), CPAN::Author::fullname(), CPAN::Author::name(), CPAN::Bundle::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Bundle::as_string(), CPAN::Bundle::clean(), CPAN::Bundle::contains(), CPAN::Bundle::force($method,@args), CPAN::Bundle::get(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_file(), CPAN::Bundle::inst_version(), CPAN::Bundle::uptodate(), CPAN::Bundle::install(), CPAN::Bundle::make(), CPAN::Bundle::readme(), CPAN::Bundle::test(), CPAN::Distribution::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Distribution::as_string(), CPAN::Distribution::clean(), CPAN::Distribution::containsmods(), CPAN::Distribution::cvs_import(), CPAN::Distribution::dir(), CPAN::Distribution::force($method,@args), CPAN::Distribution::get(), CPAN::Distribution::install(), CPAN::Distribution::isa_perl(), CPAN::Distribution::look(), CPAN::Distribution::make(), CPAN::Distribution::prereq_pm(), CPAN::Distribution::readme(), CPAN::Distribution::perldoc(), CPAN::Distribution::test(), CPAN::Distribution::uptodate(), CPAN::Index::force_reload(), CPAN::Index::reload(), CPAN::InfoObj::dump(), CPAN::Module::as_glimpse(), CPAN::Module::as_string(), CPAN::Module::clean(), CPAN::Module::cpan_file(), CPAN::Module::cpan_version(), CPAN::Module::cvs_import(), CPAN::Module::description(), CPAN::Module::force($method,@args), CPAN::Module::get(), CPAN::Module::inst_file(), CPAN::Module::inst_version(), CPAN::Module::install(), CPAN::Module::look(), CPAN::Module::make(), CPAN::Module::manpage_headline(), CPAN::Module::readme(), CPAN::Module::perldoc(), CPAN::Module::test(), CPAN::Module::uptodate(), CPAN::Module::userid()

    Cache Manager
    Bundles
    Prerequisites
    Finding packages and VERSION
    Debugging
    Floppy, Zip, Offline Mode
    CONFIGURATION

    o conf <scalar option>, o conf <scalar option> E<lt>valueE<gt>, o conf <list option>, o conf <list optionE<gt> [shift|pop], o conf <list option> [unshift|push|splice] E<lt>listE<gt>

    Note on urllist parameter's format
    urllist parameter has CD-ROM support
    SECURITY
    Cryptographically signed modules
    EXPORT
    POPULATE AN INSTALLATION WITH LOTS OF MODULES
    WORKING WITH CPAN.pm BEHIND FIREWALLS
    Three basic types of firewalls

    http firewall, ftp firewall, One way visibility, SOCKS, IP Masquerade

    Configuring lynx or ncftp for going through a firewall
    FAQ

    1), 2), 3), 4), 5), 6), 7), 8), 9), 10), 11)

    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    TRANSLATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    CPAN::FirstTime - Utility for CPAN::Config file Initialization

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    CPAN::Version - utility functions to compare CPAN versions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    CPANox, CPAN::Nox - Wrapper around CPAN.pm without using any XS module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Carp, carp - warn of errors (from perspective of caller)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Forcing a Stack Trace
    GLOBAL VARIABLES
    $Carp::CarpLevel
    $Carp::MaxEvalLen
    $Carp::MaxArgLen
    $Carp::MaxArgNums
    $Carp::Verbose
    BUGS

    Carp::Heavy - heavy machinery, no user serviceable parts inside

    Class::ISA -- report the search path for a class's ISA tree

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS

    the function Class::ISA::super_path($CLASS), the function Class::ISA::self_and_super_path($CLASS), the function Class::ISA::self_and_super_versions($CLASS)

    CAUTIONARY NOTES
    COPYRIGHT
    AUTHOR

    Class::Struct - declare struct-like datatypes as Perl classes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The struct() function
    Class Creation at Compile Time
    Element Types and Accessor Methods

    Scalar ('$' or '*$'), Array ('@' or '*@'), Hash ('%' or '*%'), Class ('Class_Name' or '*Class_Name')

    Initializing with new
    EXAMPLES

    Example 1, Example 2, Example 3

    Author and Modification History

    Config - access Perl configuration information

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    myconfig(), config_sh(), config_re($regex), config_vars(@names)

    EXAMPLE
    WARNING
    GLOSSARY
    _

    _a, _exe, _o

    a

    afs, afsroot, alignbytes, ansi2knr, aphostname, api_revision, api_subversion, api_version, api_versionstring, ar, archlib, archlibexp, archname64, archname, archobjs, asctime_r_proto, awk

    b

    baserev, bash, bin, binexp, bison, byacc, byteorder

    c

    c, castflags, cat, cc, cccdlflags, ccdlflags, ccflags, ccflags_uselargefiles, ccname, ccsymbols, ccversion, cf_by, cf_email, cf_time, charsize, chgrp, chmod, chown, clocktype, comm, compress, contains, cp, cpio, cpp, cpp_stuff, cppccsymbols, cppflags, cpplast, cppminus, cpprun, cppstdin, cppsymbols, crypt_r_proto, cryptlib, csh, ctermid_r_proto, ctime_r_proto

    d

    d__fwalk, d_access, d_accessx, d_aintl, d_alarm, d_archlib, d_asctime_r, d_atolf, d_atoll, d_attribute_format, d_attribute_malloc, d_attribute_nonnull, d_attribute_noreturn, d_attribute_pure, d_attribute_unused, d_attribute_warn_unused_result, d_bcmp, d_bcopy, d_bsd, d_bsdgetpgrp, d_bsdsetpgrp, d_bzero, d_casti32, d_castneg, d_charvspr, d_chown, d_chroot, d_chsize, d_class, d_clearenv, d_closedir, d_cmsghdr_s, d_const, d_copysignl, d_crypt, d_crypt_r, d_csh, d_ctermid_r, d_ctime_r, d_cuserid, d_dbl_dig, d_dbminitproto, d_difftime, d_dirfd, d_dirnamlen, d_dlerror, d_dlopen, d_dlsymun, d_dosuid, d_drand48_r, d_drand48proto, d_dup2, d_eaccess, d_endgrent, d_endgrent_r, d_endhent, d_endhostent_r, d_endnent, d_endnetent_r, d_endpent, d_endprotoent_r, d_endpwent, d_endpwent_r, d_endsent, d_endservent_r, d_eofnblk, d_eunice, d_faststdio, d_fchdir, d_fchmod, d_fchown, d_fcntl, d_fcntl_can_lock, d_fd_macros, d_fd_set, d_fds_bits, d_fgetpos, d_finite, d_finitel, d_flexfnam, d_flock, d_flockproto, d_fork, d_fp_class, d_fpathconf, d_fpclass, d_fpclassify, d_fpclassl, d_fpos64_t, d_frexpl, d_fs_data_s, d_fseeko, d_fsetpos, d_fstatfs, d_fstatvfs, d_fsync, d_ftello, d_ftime, d_futimes, d_Gconvert, d_getcwd, d_getespwnam, d_getfsstat, d_getgrent, d_getgrent_r, d_getgrgid_r, d_getgrnam_r, d_getgrps, d_gethbyaddr, d_gethbyname, d_gethent, d_gethname, d_gethostbyaddr_r, d_gethostbyname_r, d_gethostent_r, d_gethostprotos, d_getitimer, d_getlogin, d_getlogin_r, d_getmnt, d_getmntent, d_getnbyaddr, d_getnbyname, d_getnent, d_getnetbyaddr_r, d_getnetbyname_r, d_getnetent_r, d_getnetprotos, d_getpagsz, d_getpbyname, d_getpbynumber, d_getpent, d_getpgid, d_getpgrp2, d_getpgrp, d_getppid, d_getprior, d_getprotobyname_r, d_getprotobynumber_r, d_getprotoent_r, d_getprotoprotos, d_getprpwnam, d_getpwent, d_getpwent_r, d_getpwnam_r, d_getpwuid_r, d_getsbyname, d_getsbyport, d_getsent, d_getservbyname_r, d_getservbyport_r, d_getservent_r, d_getservprotos, d_getspnam, d_getspnam_r, d_gettimeod, d_gmtime_r, d_gnulibc, d_grpasswd, d_hasmntopt, d_htonl, d_ilogbl, d_index, d_inetaton, d_int64_t, d_isascii, d_isfinite, d_isinf, d_isnan, d_isnanl, d_killpg, d_lchown, d_ldbl_dig, d_link, d_localtime_r, d_locconv, d_lockf, d_longdbl, d_longlong, d_lseekproto, d_lstat, d_madvise, d_malloc_size, d_malloc_good_size, d_mblen, d_mbstowcs, d_mbtowc, d_memchr, d_memcmp, d_memcpy, d_memmove, d_memset, d_mkdir, d_mkdtemp, d_mkfifo, d_mkstemp, d_mkstemps, d_mktime, d_mmap, d_modfl, d_modfl_pow32_bug, d_modflproto, d_mprotect, d_msg, d_msg_ctrunc, d_msg_dontroute, d_msg_oob, d_msg_peek, d_msg_proxy, d_msgctl, d_msgget, d_msghdr_s, d_msgrcv, d_msgsnd, d_msync, d_munmap, d_mymalloc, d_nanosleep, d_nice, d_nl_langinfo, d_nv_preserves_uv, d_nv_zero_is_allbits_zero, d_off64_t, d_old_pthread_create_joinable, d_oldpthreads, d_oldsock, d_open3, d_pathconf, d_pause, d_perl_otherlibdirs, d_phostname, d_pipe, d_poll, d_portable, d_PRId64, d_PRIeldbl, d_PRIEUldbl, d_PRIfldbl, d_PRIFUldbl, d_PRIgldbl, d_PRIGUldbl, d_PRIi64, d_PRIo64, d_PRIu64, d_PRIx64, d_PRIXU64, d_procselfexe, d_pthread_atfork, d_pthread_attr_setscope, d_pthread_yield, d_pwage, d_pwchange, d_pwclass, d_pwcomment, d_pwexpire, d_pwgecos, d_pwpasswd, d_pwquota, d_qgcvt, d_quad, d_random_r, d_readdir64_r, d_readdir, d_readdir_r, d_readlink, d_readv, d_recvmsg, d_rename, d_rewinddir, d_rmdir, d_safebcpy, d_safemcpy, d_sanemcmp, d_sbrkproto, d_scalbnl, d_sched_yield, d_scm_rights, d_SCNfldbl, d_seekdir, d_select, d_sem, d_semctl, d_semctl_semid_ds, d_semctl_semun, d_semget, d_semop, d_sendmsg, d_setegid, d_seteuid, d_setgrent, d_setgrent_r, d_setgrps, d_sethent, d_sethostent_r, d_setitimer, d_setlinebuf, d_setlocale, d_setlocale_r, d_setnent, d_setnetent_r, d_setpent, d_setpgid, d_setpgrp2, d_setpgrp, d_setprior, d_setproctitle, d_setprotoent_r, d_setpwent, d_setpwent_r, d_setregid, d_setresgid, d_setresuid, d_setreuid, d_setrgid, d_setruid, d_setsent, d_setservent_r, d_setsid, d_setvbuf, d_sfio, d_shm, d_shmat, d_shmatprototype, d_shmctl, d_shmdt, d_shmget, d_sigaction, d_sigprocmask, d_sigsetjmp, d_sockatmark, d_sockatmarkproto, d_socket, d_socklen_t, d_sockpair, d_socks5_init, d_sprintf_returns_strlen, d_sqrtl, d_srand48_r, d_srandom_r, d_sresgproto, d_sresuproto, d_statblks, d_statfs_f_flags, d_statfs_s, d_statvfs, d_stdio_cnt_lval, d_stdio_ptr_lval, d_stdio_ptr_lval_nochange_cnt, d_stdio_ptr_lval_sets_cnt, d_stdio_stream_array, d_stdiobase, d_stdstdio, d_strchr, d_strcoll, d_strctcpy, d_strerrm, d_strerror, d_strerror_r, d_strftime, d_strlcat, d_strlcpy, d_strtod, d_strtol, d_strtold, d_strtoll, d_strtoq, d_strtoul, d_strtoull, d_strtouq, d_strxfrm, d_suidsafe, d_symlink, d_syscall, d_syscallproto, d_sysconf, d_sysernlst, d_syserrlst, d_system, d_tcgetpgrp, d_tcsetpgrp, d_telldir, d_telldirproto, d_time, d_times, d_tm_tm_gmtoff, d_tm_tm_zone, d_tmpnam_r, d_truncate, d_ttyname_r, d_tzname, d_u32align, d_ualarm, d_umask, d_uname, d_union_semun, d_unordered, d_unsetenv, d_usleep, d_usleepproto, d_ustat, d_vendorarch, d_vendorbin, d_vendorlib, d_vendorscript, d_vfork, d_void_closedir, d_voidsig, d_voidtty, d_volatile, d_vprintf, d_wait4, d_waitpid, d_wcstombs, d_wctomb, d_writev, d_xenix, date, db_hashtype, db_prefixtype, db_version_major, db_version_minor, db_version_patch, defvoidused, direntrytype, dlext, dlsrc, doublesize, drand01, drand48_r_proto, dynamic_ext

    e

    eagain, ebcdic, echo, egrep, emacs, endgrent_r_proto, endhostent_r_proto, endnetent_r_proto, endprotoent_r_proto, endpwent_r_proto, endservent_r_proto, eunicefix, exe_ext, expr, extensions, extras

    f

    fflushall, fflushNULL, find, firstmakefile, flex, fpossize, fpostype, freetype, from, full_ar, full_csh, full_sed

    g

    gccansipedantic, gccosandvers, gccversion, getgrent_r_proto, getgrgid_r_proto, getgrnam_r_proto, gethostbyaddr_r_proto, gethostbyname_r_proto, gethostent_r_proto, getlogin_r_proto, getnetbyaddr_r_proto, getnetbyname_r_proto, getnetent_r_proto, getprotobyname_r_proto, getprotobynumber_r_proto, getprotoent_r_proto, getpwent_r_proto, getpwnam_r_proto, getpwuid_r_proto, getservbyname_r_proto, getservbyport_r_proto, getservent_r_proto, getspnam_r_proto, gidformat, gidsign, gidsize, gidtype, glibpth, gmake, gmtime_r_proto, gnulibc_version, grep, groupcat, groupstype, gzip

    h

    h_fcntl, h_sysfile, hint, hostcat, html1dir, html1direxp, html3dir, html3direxp

    i

    i16size, i16type, i32size, i32type, i64size, i64type, i8size, i8type, i_arpainet, i_bsdioctl, i_crypt, i_db, i_dbm, i_dirent, i_dld, i_dlfcn, i_fcntl, i_float, i_fp, i_fp_class, i_gdbm, i_grp, i_ieeefp, i_inttypes, i_langinfo, i_libutil, i_limits, i_locale, i_machcthr, i_malloc, i_math, i_memory, i_mntent, i_ndbm, i_netdb, i_neterrno, i_netinettcp, i_niin, i_poll, i_prot, i_pthread, i_pwd, i_rpcsvcdbm, i_sfio, i_sgtty, i_shadow, i_socks, i_stdarg, i_stddef, i_stdlib, i_string, i_sunmath, i_sysaccess, i_sysdir, i_sysfile, i_sysfilio, i_sysin, i_sysioctl, i_syslog, i_sysmman, i_sysmode, i_sysmount, i_sysndir, i_sysparam, i_sysresrc, i_syssecrt, i_sysselct, i_syssockio, i_sysstat, i_sysstatfs, i_sysstatvfs, i_systime, i_systimek, i_systimes, i_systypes, i_sysuio, i_sysun, i_sysutsname, i_sysvfs, i_syswait, i_termio, i_termios, i_time, i_unistd, i_ustat, i_utime, i_values, i_varargs, i_varhdr, i_vfork, ignore_versioned_solibs, inc_version_list, inc_version_list_init, incpath, inews, installarchlib, installbin, installhtml1dir, installhtml3dir, installman1dir, installman3dir, installprefix, installprefixexp, installprivlib, installscript, installsitearch, installsitebin, installsitehtml1dir, installsitehtml3dir, installsitelib, installsiteman1dir, installsiteman3dir, installsitescript, installstyle, installusrbinperl, installvendorarch, installvendorbin, installvendorhtml1dir, installvendorhtml3dir, installvendorlib, installvendorman1dir, installvendorman3dir, installvendorscript, intsize, issymlink, ivdformat, ivsize, ivtype

    k

    known_extensions, ksh

    l

    ld, lddlflags, ldflags, ldflags_uselargefiles, ldlibpthname, less, lib_ext, libc, libperl, libpth, libs, libsdirs, libsfiles, libsfound, libspath, libswanted, libswanted_uselargefiles, line, lint, lkflags, ln, lns, localtime_r_proto, locincpth, loclibpth, longdblsize, longlongsize, longsize, lp, lpr, ls, lseeksize, lseektype

    m

    mail, mailx, make, make_set_make, mallocobj, mallocsrc, malloctype, man1dir, man1direxp, man1ext, man3dir, man3direxp, man3ext

    M

    Mcc, mips_type, mistrustnm, mkdir, mmaptype, modetype, more, multiarch, mv, myarchname, mydomain, myhostname, myuname

    n

    n, need_va_copy, netdb_hlen_type, netdb_host_type, netdb_name_type, netdb_net_type, nm, nm_opt, nm_so_opt, nonxs_ext, nroff, nv_preserves_uv_bits, nveformat, nvEUformat, nvfformat, nvFUformat, nvgformat, nvGUformat, nvsize, nvtype

    o

    o_nonblock, obj_ext, old_pthread_create_joinable, optimize, orderlib, osname, osvers, otherlibdirs

    p

    package, pager, passcat, patchlevel, path_sep, perl5, perl, perl_patchlevel

    P

    PERL_REVISION, PERL_SUBVERSION, PERL_VERSION, perladmin, perllibs, perlpath, pg, phostname, pidtype, plibpth, pmake, pr, prefix, prefixexp, privlib, privlibexp, procselfexe, prototype, ptrsize

    q

    quadkind, quadtype

    r

    randbits, randfunc, random_r_proto, randseedtype, ranlib, rd_nodata, readdir64_r_proto, readdir_r_proto, revision, rm, rmail, run, runnm

    s

    sched_yield, scriptdir, scriptdirexp, sed, seedfunc, selectminbits, selecttype, sendmail, setgrent_r_proto, sethostent_r_proto, setlocale_r_proto, setnetent_r_proto, setprotoent_r_proto, setpwent_r_proto, setservent_r_proto, sh, shar, sharpbang, shmattype, shortsize, shrpenv, shsharp, sig_count, sig_name, sig_name_init, sig_num, sig_num_init, sig_size, signal_t, sitearch, sitearchexp, sitebin, sitebinexp, sitehtml1dir, sitehtml1direxp, sitehtml3dir, sitehtml3direxp, sitelib, sitelib_stem, sitelibexp, siteman1dir, siteman1direxp, siteman3dir, siteman3direxp, siteprefix, siteprefixexp, sitescript, sitescriptexp, sizesize, sizetype, sleep, smail, so, sockethdr, socketlib, socksizetype, sort, spackage, spitshell, sPRId64, sPRIeldbl, sPRIEUldbl, sPRIfldbl, sPRIFUldbl, sPRIgldbl, sPRIGUldbl, sPRIi64, sPRIo64, sPRIu64, sPRIx64, sPRIXU64, srand48_r_proto, srandom_r_proto, src, sSCNfldbl, ssizetype, startperl, startsh, static_ext, stdchar, stdio_base, stdio_bufsiz, stdio_cnt, stdio_filbuf, stdio_ptr, stdio_stream_array, strerror_r_proto, strings, submit, subversion, sysman

    t

    tail, tar, targetarch, tbl, tee, test, timeincl, timetype, tmpnam_r_proto, to, touch, tr, trnl, troff, ttyname_r_proto

    u

    u16size, u16type, u32size, u32type, u64size, u64type, u8size, u8type, uidformat, uidsign, uidsize, uidtype, uname, uniq, uquadtype, use5005threads, use64bitall, use64bitint, usecrosscompile, usedl, usefaststdio, useithreads, uselargefiles, uselongdouble, usemallocwrap, usemorebits, usemultiplicity, usemymalloc, usenm, useopcode, useperlio, useposix, usereentrant, usesfio, useshrplib, usesocks, usethreads, usevendorprefix, usevfork, usrinc, uuname, uvoformat, uvsize, uvtype, uvuformat, uvxformat, uvXUformat

    v

    vendorarch, vendorarchexp, vendorbin, vendorbinexp, vendorhtml1dir, vendorhtml1direxp, vendorhtml3dir, vendorhtml3direxp, vendorlib, vendorlib_stem, vendorlibexp, vendorman1dir, vendorman1direxp, vendorman3dir, vendorman3direxp, vendorprefix, vendorprefixexp, vendorscript, vendorscriptexp, version, version_patchlevel_string, versiononly, vi, voidflags

    x

    xlibpth

    y

    yacc, yaccflags

    z

    zcat, zip

    NOTE

    Cwd - get pathname of current working directory

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    getcwd and friends

    getcwd, cwd, fastcwd, fastgetcwd, getdcwd

    abs_path and friends

    abs_path, realpath, fast_abs_path

    $ENV{PWD}
    NOTES
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    DB - programmatic interface to the Perl debugging API (draft, subject to change)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Global Variables
     $DB::sub,  %DB::sub,  $DB::single,  $DB::signal,  $DB::trace,  @DB::args, 
    @DB::dbline,  %DB::dbline,  $DB::package,  $DB::filename,  $DB::subname, 
    $DB::lineno
    API Methods

    CLIENT->register(), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->skippkg('D::hide'), CLIENT->run(), CLIENT->step(), CLIENT->next(), CLIENT->done()

    Client Callback Methods

    CLIENT->init(), CLIENT->prestop([STRING]), CLIENT->stop(), CLIENT->idle(), CLIENT->poststop([STRING]), CLIENT->evalcode(STRING), CLIENT->cleanup(), CLIENT->output(LIST)

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    DBM_Filter -- Filter DBM keys/values

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    What is a DBM Filter?
    So what's new?
    METHODS
    $db->Filter_Push()
    $db->Filter_Key_Push()
    $db->Filter_Value_Push()

    Filter_Push, Filter_Key_Push, Filter_Value_Push

    $db->Filter_Pop()
    $db->Filtered()
    Writing a Filter
    Immediate Filters
    Canned Filters

    ``name'', params

    Filters Included

    utf8, encode, compress, int32, null

    NOTES
    Maintain Round Trip Integrity
    Don't mix filtered & non-filtered data in the same database file.
    EXAMPLE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    DB_File - Perl5 access to Berkeley DB version 1.x

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    DB_HASH, DB_BTREE, DB_RECNO

    Using DB_File with Berkeley DB version 2 or greater
    Interface to Berkeley DB
    Opening a Berkeley DB Database File
    Default Parameters
    In Memory Databases
    DB_HASH
    A Simple Example
    DB_BTREE
    Changing the BTREE sort order
    Handling Duplicate Keys
    The get_dup() Method
    The find_dup() Method
    The del_dup() Method
    Matching Partial Keys
    DB_RECNO
    The 'bval' Option
    A Simple Example
    Extra RECNO Methods

    $X->push(list) ;, $value = $X->pop ;, $X->shift, $X->unshift(list) ;, $X->length, $X->splice(offset, length, elements);

    Another Example
    THE API INTERFACE

    $status = $X->get($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->put($key, $value [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->del($key [, $flags]) ;, $status = $X->fd ;, $status = $X->seq($key, $value, $flags) ;, $status = $X->sync([$flags]) ;

    DBM FILTERS

    filter_store_key, filter_store_value, filter_fetch_key, filter_fetch_value

    The Filter
    An Example -- the NULL termination problem.
    Another Example -- Key is a C int.
    HINTS AND TIPS
    Locking: The Trouble with fd
    Safe ways to lock a database

    Tie::DB_Lock, Tie::DB_LockFile, DB_File::Lock

    Sharing Databases With C Applications
    The untie() Gotcha
    COMMON QUESTIONS
    Why is there Perl source in my database?
    How do I store complex data structures with DB_File?
    What does ``Invalid Argument'' mean?
    What does ``Bareword 'DB_File' not allowed'' mean?
    REFERENCES
    HISTORY
    BUGS
    AVAILABILITY
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Data::Dumper - stringified perl data structures, suitable for both printing and eval

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods

    PACKAGE->new(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Dump or PACKAGE->Dump(ARRAYREF [, ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Seen([HASHREF]), $OBJ->Values([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Names([ARRAYREF]), $OBJ->Reset

    Functions

    Dumper(LIST)

    Configuration Variables or Methods
    Exports

    Dumper

    EXAMPLES
    BUGS
    NOTE
    AUTHOR
    VERSION
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::DProf - a Perl code profiler

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    PROFILE FORMAT
    AUTOLOAD
    ENVIRONMENT
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::PPPort - Perl/Pollution/Portability

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Why use ppport.h?

    You should use ppport.h in modern code so that your code will work with the widest range of Perl interpreters possible, without significant additional work.

    How to use ppport.h
    Running ppport.h
    FUNCTIONS
    WriteFile
    COMPATIBILITY
    Provided Perl compatibility API
    Perl API not supported by ppport.h

    perl 5.9.2, perl 5.9.1, perl 5.9.0, perl 5.8.3, perl 5.8.1, perl 5.8.0, perl 5.7.3, perl 5.7.2, perl 5.7.1, perl 5.6.1, perl 5.6.0, perl 5.005_03, perl 5.005, perl 5.004_05, perl 5.004_04, perl 5.004

    BUGS
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::Peek - A data debugging tool for the XS programmer

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Runtime debugging
    Memory footprint debugging
    EXAMPLES
    A simple scalar string
    A simple scalar number
    A simple scalar with an extra reference
    A reference to a simple scalar
    A reference to an array
    A reference to a hash
    Dumping a large array or hash
    A reference to an SV which holds a C pointer
    A reference to a subroutine
    EXPORTS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Devel::SelfStubber - generate stubs for a SelfLoading module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Devel::Size - Perl extension for finding the memory usage of Perl variables

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS
    size($ref)
    total_size($ref)
    EXPORT
    UNDERSTANDING MEMORY ALLOCATION
    The C library
    Perl
    DANGERS
    Messages: texts originating from this module.
    Errors
    warnings
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    Digest - Modules that calculate message digests

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    binary, hex, base64

    OO INTERFACE

    $ctx = Digest->XXX($arg,...), $ctx = Digest->new(XXX => $arg,...), $ctx = Digest::XXX->new($arg,...), $other_ctx = $ctx->clone, $ctx->reset, $ctx->add( $data, ... ), $ctx->addfile( $io_handle ), $ctx->add_bits( $data, $nbits ), $ctx->add_bits( $bitstring ), $ctx->digest, $ctx->hexdigest, $ctx->b64digest

    Digest speed
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Digest::MD5 - Perl interface to the MD5 Algorithm

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS

    md5($data,...), md5_hex($data,...), md5_base64($data,...)

    METHODS

    $md5 = Digest::MD5->new, $md5->reset, $md5->clone, $md5->add($data,...), $md5->addfile($io_handle), $md5->add_bits($data, $nbits), $md5->add_bits($bitstring), $md5->digest, $md5->hexdigest, $md5->b64digest

    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT
    AUTHORS

    Digest::base - Digest base class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Digest::file - Calculate digests of files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    digest_file( $file, $algorithm, [$arg,...] ), digest_file_hex( $file, $algorithm, [$arg,...] ), digest_file_base64( $file, $algorithm, [$arg,...] )

    SEE ALSO

    DirHandle - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES

    Dumpvalue - provides screen dump of Perl data.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Creation

    arrayDepth, hashDepth, compactDump, veryCompact, globPrint, dumpDBFiles, dumpPackages, dumpReused, tick, quoteHighBit, printUndef, usageOnly, unctrl, subdump, bareStringify, quoteHighBit, stopDbSignal

    Methods

    dumpValue, dumpValues, stringify, dumpvars, set_quote, set_unctrl, compactDump, veryCompact, set, get

    DynaLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    @dl_library_path, @dl_resolve_using, @dl_require_symbols, @dl_librefs, @dl_modules, @dl_shared_objects, dl_error(), $dl_debug, dl_findfile(), dl_expandspec(), dl_load_file(), dl_unload_file(), dl_load_flags(), dl_find_symbol(), dl_find_symbol_anywhere(), dl_undef_symbols(), dl_install_xsub(), bootstrap()

    AUTHOR

    DynaLoader::XSLoader, XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Migration from DynaLoader
    Backward compatible boilerplate
    Order of initialization: early load()
    The most hairy case
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Can't find '%s' symbol in %s, Can't load '%s' for module %s: %s, Undefined symbols present after loading %s: %s, XSLoader::load('Your::Module', $Your::Module::VERSION)

    LIMITATIONS
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Encode - character encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    Table of Contents
    DESCRIPTION
    TERMINOLOGY
    PERL ENCODING API

    $octets = encode(ENCODING, $string [, CHECK]), $string = decode(ENCODING, $octets [, CHECK]), [$length =] from_to($octets, FROM_ENC, TO_ENC [, CHECK]), $octets = encode_utf8($string);, $string = decode_utf8($octets [, CHECK]);

    Listing available encodings
    Defining Aliases
    Encoding via PerlIO
    Handling Malformed Data

    NOTE: Not all encoding support this feature, CHECK = Encode::FB_DEFAULT ( == 0), CHECK = Encode::FB_CROAK ( == 1), CHECK = Encode::FB_QUIET, CHECK = Encode::FB_WARN, perlqq mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_PERLQQ), HTML charref mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_HTMLCREF), XML charref mode (CHECK = Encode::FB_XMLCREF), The bitmask

    coderef for CHECK
    Defining Encodings
    The UTF-8 flag

    Goal #1:, Goal #2:, Goal #3:, Goal #4:

    Messing with Perl's Internals

    is_utf8(STRING [, CHECK]), _utf8_on(STRING), _utf8_off(STRING)

    UTF-8 vs. utf8
    SEE ALSO
    MAINTAINER

    Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:, As a code reference, e.g.:

    Alias overloading
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::Byte - Single Byte Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::CJKConstants -- Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

    Encode::CN - China-based Chinese Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by Encode::CN

    Encode::Config -- internally used by Encode

    Encode::EBCDIC - EBCDIC Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation Base Class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods you should implement

    ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]), ->cat_decode($destination, $octets, $offset, $terminator [,$check])

    Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings

    ->name, ->renew, ->renewed, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines()

    Example: Encode::ROT13
    Why the heck Encode API is different?
    Compiled Encodings
    SEE ALSO

    Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes

    Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION

    Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects, Encode::decode(``Guess'' ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data), guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects])

    CAVEATS
    TO DO
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::JP - Japanese Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    Note on ISO-2022-JP(-1)?
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

    Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by Encode::JP

    Encode::KR - Korean Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally used by Encode::KR

    Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

    Overview
    How does it work?
    Line Buffering
    How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ?
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::Supported -- Encodings supported by Encode

    DESCRIPTION
    Encoding Names
    Supported Encodings
    Built-in Encodings
    Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings
    Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII

    ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1

    CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte)

    Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan, Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra -- More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings via CPAN

    Miscellaneous encodings

    Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::Guess

    Unsupported encodings
      ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings,
    Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran
    System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS,
    Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings
    Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology
    Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai)
    Microsoft-related naming mess

    KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS

    Glossary

    character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding scheme (CES), charset (in MIME context), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2, Unicode, UTF, UTF-16

    See Also
    References

    ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq ISO-2022), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary

    Other Notable Sites

    czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin's Hangul FAQ, debian.org: ``Introduction to i18n''

    Offline sources

    CJKV Information Processing by Ken Lunde

    Encode::Symbol - Symbol Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::TW - Taiwan-based Chinese Encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::Unicode -- Various Unicode Transformation Formats

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT

    http://www.unicode.org/glossary/ says:, Quick Reference

    Size, Endianness, and BOM
    by size
    by endianness

    BOM as integer when fetched in network byte order

    Surrogate Pairs
    Error Checking
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::Unicode::UTF7 -- UTF-7 encoding

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    In Practice
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encode::Alias, Encode::Alias - alias definitions to encodings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    As a simple string, As a qr// compiled regular expression, e.g.:, As a code reference, e.g.:

    Alias overloading
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encode::CJKConstants, Encode::CJKConstants.pm -- Internally used by Encode::??::ISO_2022_*

    Encode::lib::Encode::CN::HZ, Encode::CN::HZ -- internally used by Encode::CN

    Encode::lib::Encode::Config, Encode::Config -- internally used by Encode

    Encode::lib::Encode::Encoding, Encode::Encoding - Encode Implementation Base Class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods you should implement

    ->encode($string [,$check]), ->decode($octets [,$check]), ->cat_decode($destination, $octets, $offset, $terminator [,$check])

    Other methods defined in Encode::Encodings

    ->name, ->renew, ->renewed, ->perlio_ok(), ->needs_lines()

    Example: Encode::ROT13
    Why the heck Encode API is different?
    Compiled Encodings
    SEE ALSO

    Scheme 1, Scheme 2, Other Schemes

    Encode::lib::Encode::Guess, Encode::Guess -- Guesses encoding from data

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION

    Encode::Guess->set_suspects, Encode::Guess->add_suspects, Encode::decode(``Guess'' ...), Encode::Guess->guess($data), guess_encoding($data, [, list of suspects])

    CAVEATS
    TO DO
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encode::JP::H2Z, Encode::JP::H2Z -- internally used by Encode::JP::2022_JP*

    Encode::lib::Encode::JP::JIS7, Encode::JP::JIS7 -- internally used by Encode::JP

    Encode::lib::Encode::KR::2022_KR, Encode::KR::2022_KR -- internally used by Encode::KR

    Encode::lib::Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::MIME::Header -- MIME 'B' and 'Q' header encoding

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encode::PerlIO, Encode::PerlIO -- a detailed document on Encode and PerlIO

    Overview
    How does it work?
    Line Buffering
    How can I tell whether my encoding fully supports PerlIO ?
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encode::Supported, Encode::Supported -- Encodings supported by Encode

    DESCRIPTION
    Encoding Names
    Supported Encodings
    Built-in Encodings
    Encode::Unicode -- other Unicode encodings
    Encode::Byte -- Extended ASCII

    ISO-8859 and corresponding vendor mappings, KOI8 - De Facto Standard for the Cyrillic world, gsm0338 - Hentai Latin 1

    CJK: Chinese, Japanese, Korean (Multibyte)

    Encode::CN -- Continental China, Encode::JP -- Japan, Encode::KR -- Korea, Encode::TW -- Taiwan, Encode::HanExtra -- More Chinese via CPAN, Encode::JIS2K -- JIS X 0213 encodings via CPAN

    Miscellaneous encodings

    Encode::EBCDIC, Encode::Symbols, Encode::MIME::Header, Encode::Guess

    Unsupported encodings
      ISO-2022-JP-2 [RFC1554], ISO-2022-CN [RFC1922], Various HP-UX encodings,
    Cyrillic encoding ISO-IR-111, ISO-8859-8-1 [Hebrew], ISIRI 3342, Iran
    System, ISIRI 2900 [Farsi], Thai encoding TCVN, Vietnamese encodings VPS,
    Various Mac encodings, (Mac) Indic encodings
    Encoding vs. Charset -- terminology
    Encoding Classification (by Anton Tagunov and Dan Kogai)
    Microsoft-related naming mess

    KS_C_5601-1987, GB2312, Big5, Shift_JIS

    Glossary

    character repertoire, coded character set (CCS), character encoding scheme (CES), charset (in MIME context), EUC, ISO-2022, UCS, UCS-2, Unicode, UTF, UTF-16

    See Also
    References

    ECMA, ECMA-035 (eq ISO-2022), IANA, Assigned Charset Names by IANA, ISO, RFC, UC, Unicode Glossary

    Other Notable Sites

    czyborra.com, CJK.inf, Jungshik Shin's Hangul FAQ, debian.org: ``Introduction to i18n''

    Offline sources

    CJKV Information Processing by Ken Lunde

    Encode::lib::Encode::Unicode::UTF7, Encode::Unicode::UTF7 -- UTF-7 encoding

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    In Practice
    SEE ALSO

    Encode::lib::Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    Description
    Predefined Methods

    $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(), $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encoding]), $e->bytes([$encoding])

    Example: base64 transcoder
    Operator Overloading
    SEE ALSO

    Encodencoding, encoding - allows you to write your script in non-ascii or non-utf8

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    Literal Conversions
    PerlIO layers for STD(IN|OUT)
    Implicit upgrading for byte strings
    FEATURES THAT REQUIRE 5.8.1

    ``NON-EUC'' doublebyte encodings, tr//, DATA pseudo-filehandle

    USAGE

    use encoding [ENCNAME] ;, use encoding ENCNAME [ STDIN => ENCNAME_IN ...] ;, use encoding ENCNAME Filter=>1;, no encoding;

    The Filter Option
    Filter-related changes at Encode version 1.87
    CAVEATS
    NOT SCOPED
    DO NOT MIX MULTIPLE ENCODINGS
    tr/// with ranges

    Legend of characters above

    EXAMPLE - Greekperl
    KNOWN PROBLEMS

    literals in regex that are longer than 127 bytes, EBCDIC, format

    The Logic of :locale
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    Encoder, Encode::Encoder -- Object Oriented Encoder

    SYNOPSIS
    ABSTRACT
    Description
    Predefined Methods

    $e = Encode::Encoder->new([$data, $encoding]);, encoder(), $e->data([$data]), $e->encoding([$encoding]), $e->bytes([$encoding])

    Example: base64 transcoder
    Operator Overloading
    SEE ALSO

    English - use nice English (or awk) names for ugly punctuation variables

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    PERFORMANCE

    Env - perl module that imports environment variables as scalars or arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    LIMITATIONS
    AUTHOR

    Errno - System errno constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Exporter - Implements default import method for modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    How to Export
    Selecting What To Export
    How to Import

    use ModuleName;, use ModuleName ();, use ModuleName qw(...);

    Advanced features
    Specialised Import Lists
    Exporting without using Exporter's import method
    Exporting without inheriting from Exporter
    Module Version Checking
    Managing Unknown Symbols
    Tag Handling Utility Functions
    Generating combined tags
    AUTOLOADed Constants

    Exporter::Heavy - Exporter guts

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Command - utilities to replace common UNIX commands in Makefiles etc.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    cat

    eqtime

    rm_rf

    rm_f

    touch

    mv

    cp

    chmod

    mkpath

    test_f

    dos2unix

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Command::MM - Commands for the MM's to use in Makefiles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    test_harness

    pod2man

    warn_if_old_packlist

    perllocal_install

    uninstall

    ExtUtils::Constant - generate XS code to import C header constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE

    IV, UV, NV, PV, PVN, SV, YES, NO, UNDEF

    FUNCTIONS

    constant_types

    XS_constant PACKAGE, TYPES, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME

    autoload PACKAGE, VERSION, AUTOLOADER

    WriteMakefileSnippet

    WriteConstants ATTRIBUTE => VALUE [, ...], NAME, DEFAULT_TYPE, BREAKOUT_AT, NAMES, C_FILE, XS_FILE, SUBNAME, C_SUBNAME

    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Constant::Base - base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE

    header

    memEQ_clause args_hashref

    dump_names arg_hashref, ITEM..

    assign arg_hashref, VALUE..

    return_clause arg_hashref, ITEM

    switch_clause arg_hashref, NAMELEN, ITEMHASH, ITEM..

    params WHAT

    dogfood arg_hashref, ITEM..

    C_constant arg_hashref, ITEM.., name, type, value, macro, default, pre, post, def_pre, def_post, utf8, weight

    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Constant::Utils - helper functions for ExtUtils::Constant

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE

    C_stringify NAME

    perl_stringify NAME

    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Constant::XS, ExtUtils::Constant::Base - base class for ExtUtils::Constant objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Embed - Utilities for embedding Perl in C/C++ applications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    @EXPORT
    FUNCTIONS

    xsinit(), Examples, ldopts(), Examples, perl_inc(), ccflags(), ccdlflags(), ccopts(), xsi_header(), xsi_protos(@modules), xsi_body(@modules)

    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Install - install files from here to there

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions

    install

    install_default DISCOURAGED

    uninstall

    pm_to_blib

    _autosplit

    ENVIRONMENT

    PERL_INSTALL_ROOT

    AUTHOR
    LICENSE

    ExtUtils::Installed - Inventory management of installed modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE
    FUNCTIONS

    new(), modules(), files(), directories(), directory_tree(), validate(), packlist(), version()

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Liblist - determine libraries to use and how to use them

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    For static extensions, For dynamic extensions at build/link time, For dynamic extensions at load time

    EXTRALIBS
    LDLOADLIBS and LD_RUN_PATH
    BSLOADLIBS
    PORTABILITY
    VMS implementation
    Win32 implementation
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM - OS adjusted ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MM_AIX - AIX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    Cross-platform helper methods
    Targets
    Init methods
    Tools
    File::Spec wrappers
    Misc
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::MM_BeOS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    os_flavor

    init_linker

    ExtUtils::MM_Cygwin - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    os_flavor

    cflags

    replace_manpage_separator

    init_linker

    ExtUtils::MM_DOS - DOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods

    os_flavor

    replace_manpage_separator

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_MacOS - once produced Makefiles for MacOS Classic

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MM_NW5 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    os_flavor

    init_platform, platform_constants

    const_cccmd

    static_lib

    dynamic_lib

    ExtUtils::MM_OS2 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    init_dist

    init_linker

    os_flavor

    ExtUtils::MM_QNX - QNX specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_UWIN - U/WIN specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods

    os_flavor

    replace_manpage_separator

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_Unix - methods used by ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    Methods

    os_flavor

    c_o (o)

    cflags (o)

    const_cccmd (o)

    const_config (o)

    const_loadlibs (o)

    constants (o)

    depend (o)

    init_DEST

    init_dist

    dist (o)

    dist_basics (o)

    dist_ci (o)

    dist_core (o)

    dist_target

    tardist_target

    zipdist_target

    tarfile_target

    zipfile_target

    uutardist_target

    shdist_target

    dlsyms (o)

    dynamic_bs (o)

    dynamic_lib (o)

    exescan

    extliblist

    find_perl

    fixin

    force (o)

    guess_name

    has_link_code

    init_dirscan

    init_DIRFILESEP

    init_main

    init_others

    init_linker

    init_lib2arch

    init_PERL

    init_platform, platform_constants

    init_PERM

    init_xs

    install (o)

    installbin (o)

    linkext (o)

    lsdir

    macro (o)

    makeaperl (o)

    makefile (o)

    maybe_command

    needs_linking (o)

    nicetext

    parse_abstract

    parse_version

    pasthru (o)

    perl_script

    perldepend (o)

    perm_rw (o)

    perm_rwx (o)

    pm_to_blib

    post_constants (o)

    post_initialize (o)

    postamble (o)

    ppd

    prefixify

    processPL (o)

    quote_paren

    replace_manpage_separator

    cd

    oneliner

    quote_literal

    escape_newlines

    max_exec_len

    static (o)

    static_lib (o)

    staticmake (o)

    subdir_x (o)

    subdirs (o)

    test (o)

    test_via_harness (override)

    test_via_script (override)

    tools_other (o)

    tool_xsubpp (o)

    all_target

    top_targets (o)

    writedoc

    xs_c (o)

    xs_cpp (o)

    xs_o (o)

    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_VMS - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods always loaded

    wraplist

    Methods

    guess_name (override)

    find_perl (override)

    maybe_command (override)

    pasthru (override)

    pm_to_blib (override)

    perl_script (override)

    replace_manpage_separator

    init_DEST

    init_DIRFILESEP

    init_main (override)

    init_others (override)

    init_platform (override)

    platform_constants

    init_VERSION (override)

    constants (override)

    special_targets

    cflags (override)

    const_cccmd (override)

    tools_other (override)

    init_dist (override)

    c_o (override)

    xs_c (override)

    xs_o (override)

    dlsyms (override)

    dynamic_lib (override)

    static_lib (override)

    extra_clean_files

    zipfile_target, tarfile_target, shdist_target

    install (override)

    perldepend (override)

    makeaperl (override)

    nicetext (override)

    prefixify (override)

    cd

    oneliner

    echo

    quote_literal

    escape_newlines

    max_exec_len

    init_linker

    eliminate_macros

    fixpath

    os_flavor

    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::MM_VOS - VOS specific subclass of ExtUtils::MM_Unix

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MM_Win32 - methods to override UN*X behaviour in ExtUtils::MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overridden methods

    dlsyms

    replace_manpage_separator

    maybe_command

    init_DIRFILESEP

    init_others

    init_platform, platform_constants

    special_targets

    static_lib

    dynamic_lib

    extra_clean_files

    init_linker

    perl_script

    xs_o

    pasthru

    oneliner

    cd

    max_exec_len

    os_flavor

    ExtUtils::MM_Win95 - method to customize MakeMaker for Win9X

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Overriden methods

    xs_c

    xs_cpp

    xs_o

    max_exec_len

    os_flavor

    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::MY - ExtUtils::MakeMaker subclass for customization

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker - Create a module Makefile

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    How To Write A Makefile.PL
    Default Makefile Behaviour
    make test
    make testdb
    make install
    PREFIX and LIB attribute
    AFS users
    Static Linking of a new Perl Binary
    Determination of Perl Library and Installation Locations
    Which architecture dependent directory?
    Using Attributes and Parameters

    ABSTRACT, ABSTRACT_FROM, AUTHOR, BINARY_LOCATION, C, CCFLAGS, CONFIG, CONFIGURE, DEFINE, DESTDIR, DIR, DISTNAME, DISTVNAME, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, EXCLUDE_EXT, EXE_FILES, FIRST_MAKEFILE, FULLPERL, FULLPERLRUN, FULLPERLRUNINST, FUNCLIST, H, IMPORTS, INC, INCLUDE_EXT, INSTALLARCHLIB, INSTALLBIN, INSTALLDIRS, INSTALLMAN1DIR, INSTALLMAN3DIR, INSTALLPRIVLIB, INSTALLSCRIPT, INSTALLSITEARCH, INSTALLSITEBIN, INSTALLSITELIB, INSTALLSITEMAN1DIR, INSTALLSITEMAN3DIR, INSTALLVENDORARCH, INSTALLVENDORBIN, INSTALLVENDORLIB, INSTALLVENDORMAN1DIR, INSTALLVENDORMAN3DIR, INST_ARCHLIB, INST_BIN, INST_LIB, INST_MAN1DIR, INST_MAN3DIR, INST_SCRIPT, LD, LDDLFLAGS, LDFROM, LIB, LIBPERL_A, LIBS, LINKTYPE, MAKEAPERL, MAKEFILE_OLD, MAN1PODS, MAN3PODS, MAP_TARGET, MYEXTLIB, NAME, NEEDS_LINKING, NOECHO, NORECURS, NO_META, NO_VC, OBJECT, OPTIMIZE, PERL, PERL_CORE, PERLMAINCC, PERL_ARCHLIB, PERL_LIB, PERL_MALLOC_OK, PERLPREFIX, PERLRUN, PERLRUNINST, PERL_SRC, PERM_RW, PERM_RWX, PL_FILES, PM, PMLIBDIRS, PM_FILTER, POLLUTE, PPM_INSTALL_EXEC, PPM_INSTALL_SCRIPT, PREFIX, PREREQ_FATAL, PREREQ_PM, PREREQ_PRINT, PRINT_PREREQ, SITEPREFIX, SIGN, SKIP, TYPEMAPS, VENDORPREFIX, VERBINST, VERSION, VERSION_FROM, VERSION_SYM, XS, XSOPT, XSPROTOARG, XS_VERSION

    Additional lowercase attributes

    clean, depend, dist, dynamic_lib, linkext, macro, postamble, realclean, test, tool_autosplit

    Overriding MakeMaker Methods
    The End Of Cargo Cult Programming

    MAN3PODS => ' '

    Hintsfile support
    Distribution Support
       make distcheck,    make skipcheck,    make distclean,    make manifest, 
      make distdir,   make disttest,    make tardist,    make dist,    make
    uutardist,    make shdist,    make zipdist,    make ci
    Module Meta-Data
    Disabling an extension
    Other Handy Functions

    prompt

    ENVIRONMENT

    PERL_MM_OPT, PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT, PERL_CORE

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    LICENSE

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Config - Wrapper around Config.pm

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker

    DESCRIPTION
    Module Installation

    How do I keep from installing man pages?, How do I use a module without installing it?

    Philosophy and History

    Why not just use <insert other build config tool here>?, What is Module::Build and how does it relate to MakeMaker?, pure perl. no make, no shell commands, easier to customize, cleaner internals, less cruft

    Module Writing

    How do I keep my $VERSION up to date without resetting it manually?, What's this META.yml thing and how did it get in my MANIFEST?!

    XS

    How to I prevent ``object version X.XX does not match bootstrap parameter Y.YY'' errors?, How do I make two or more XS files coexist in the same directory?

    PATCHING
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::Tutorial - Writing a module with MakeMaker

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The Mantra
    The Layout

    Makefile.PL, MANIFEST, lib/, t/, Changes, README, INSTALL, MANIFEST.SKIP, bin/

    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::bytes - Version-agnostic bytes.pm

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::vmsish - Platform-agnostic vmsish.pm

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Manifest - utilities to write and check a MANIFEST file

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions

    mkmanifest

    manifind

    manicheck

    filecheck

    fullcheck

    skipcheck

    maniread

    manicopy

    maniadd

    MANIFEST
    MANIFEST.SKIP
    EXPORT_OK
    GLOBAL VARIABLES
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Not in MANIFEST: file, Skipping file, No such file: file, MANIFEST: $!, Added to MANIFEST: file

    ENVIRONMENT

    PERL_MM_MANIFEST_DEBUG

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::Miniperl, writemain - write the C code for perlmain.c

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    ExtUtils::Mkbootstrap - make a bootstrap file for use by DynaLoader

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ExtUtils::Mksymlists - write linker options files for dynamic extension

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    DLBASE, DL_FUNCS, DL_VARS, FILE, FUNCLIST, IMPORTS, NAME

    AUTHOR
    REVISION

    ExtUtils::Packlist - manage .packlist files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USAGE
    FUNCTIONS

    new(), read(), write(), validate(), packlist_file()

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR

    ExtUtils::testlib - add blib/* directories to @INC

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Fatal - replace functions with equivalents which succeed or die

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Fcntl - load the C Fcntl.h defines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    EXPORTED SYMBOLS

    File::Basename - Parse file paths into directory, filename and suffix.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    fileparse

    basename

    dirname

    fileparse_set_fstype

    SEE ALSO

    File::CheckTree, validate - run many filetest checks on a tree

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    HISTORY

    File::Compare - Compare files or filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    RETURN
    AUTHOR

    File::Copy - Copy files or filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Special behaviour if syscopy is defined (OS/2, VMS and Win32)

    rmscopy($from,$to[,$date_flag])

    RETURN
    NOTES
    AUTHOR

    File::DosGlob - DOS like globbing and then some

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    EXPORTS (by request only)
    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    File::Find - Traverse a directory tree.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    find, finddepth

    %options

    wanted, bydepth, preprocess, postprocess, follow, follow_fast, follow_skip, dangling_symlinks, no_chdir, untaint, untaint_pattern, untaint_skip

    The wanted function

    $File::Find::dir is the current directory name,, $_ is the current filename within that directory, $File::Find::name is the complete pathname to the file

    WARNINGS
    CAVEAT

    $dont_use_nlink, symlinks

    NOTES
    BUGS AND CAVEATS
    HISTORY

    File::Glob - Perl extension for BSD glob routine

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    META CHARACTERS
    POSIX FLAGS

    GLOB_ERR, GLOB_LIMIT, GLOB_MARK, GLOB_NOCASE, GLOB_NOCHECK, GLOB_NOSORT, GLOB_BRACE, GLOB_NOMAGIC, GLOB_QUOTE, GLOB_TILDE, GLOB_CSH, GLOB_ALPHASORT

    DIAGNOSTICS

    GLOB_NOSPACE, GLOB_ABEND

    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    File::Path - create or remove directory trees

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS
    AUTHORS

    File::Spec - portably perform operations on file names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    canonpath, catdir, catfile, curdir, devnull, rootdir, tmpdir, updir, no_upwards, case_tolerant, file_name_is_absolute, path, join, splitpath, splitdir, catpath(), abs2rel, rel2abs()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    File::Spec::Cygwin - methods for Cygwin file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    canonpath

    file_name_is_absolute

    tmpdir (override)

    COPYRIGHT

    File::Spec::Epoc - methods for Epoc file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    canonpath()

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::Functions - portably perform operations on file names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Exports
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::Mac - File::Spec for Mac OS (Classic)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    canonpath

    catdir()

    catfile

    curdir

    devnull

    rootdir

    tmpdir

    updir

    file_name_is_absolute

    path

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath

    abs2rel

    rel2abs

    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::OS2 - methods for OS/2 file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    tmpdir, splitpath

    COPYRIGHT

    File::Spec::Unix - File::Spec for Unix, base for other File::Spec modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    canonpath()

    catdir()

    catfile

    curdir

    devnull

    rootdir

    tmpdir

    updir

    no_upwards

    case_tolerant

    file_name_is_absolute

    path

    join

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath()

    abs2rel

    rel2abs()

    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::VMS - methods for VMS file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    canonpath (override)

    catdir (override)

    catfile (override)

    curdir (override)

    devnull (override)

    rootdir (override)

    tmpdir (override)

    updir (override)

    case_tolerant (override)

    path (override)

    file_name_is_absolute (override)

    splitpath (override)

    splitdir (override)

    catpath (override)

    abs2rel (override)

    rel2abs (override)

    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Spec::Win32 - methods for Win32 file specs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    devnull

    tmpdir

    catfile

    canonpath

    splitpath

    splitdir

    catpath

    Note For File::Spec::Win32 Maintainers
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    File::Temp - return name and handle of a temporary file safely

    PORTABILITY
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE

    new

    filename

    unlink_on_destroy

    DESTROY

    FUNCTIONS

    tempfile

    tempdir

    MKTEMP FUNCTIONS

    mkstemp

    mkstemps

    mkdtemp

    mktemp

    POSIX FUNCTIONS

    tmpnam

    tmpfile

    ADDITIONAL FUNCTIONS

    tempnam

    UTILITY FUNCTIONS

    unlink0

    cmpstat

    unlink1

    cleanup

    PACKAGE VARIABLES

    safe_level, STANDARD, MEDIUM, HIGH

    TopSystemUID

    $KEEP_ALL, $DEBUG

    WARNING
    Temporary files and NFS
    Forking
    BINMODE
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    File::stat - by-name interface to Perl's built-in stat() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    FileCache - keep more files open than the system permits

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    cacheout EXPR, cacheout MODE, EXPR

    CAVEATS
    BUGS

    FileHandle - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $fh->print, $fh->printf, $fh->getline, $fh->getlines

    SEE ALSO

    Filter::Simple - Simplified source filtering

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The Problem
    A Solution
    Disabling or changing <no> behaviour
    All-in-one interface
    Filtering only specific components of source code

    "code", "code_no_comments", "executable", "executable_no_comments", "quotelike", "string", "regex", "all"

    Filtering only the code parts of source code

    Most source code ceases to be grammatically correct when it is broken up into the pieces between string literals and regexes. So the 'code' and 'code_no_comments' component filter behave slightly differently from the other partial filters described in the previous section.

    Using Filter::Simple with an explicit import subroutine
    Using Filter::Simple and Exporter together
    How it works
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Filter::Util::Call - Perl Source Filter Utility Module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    use Filter::Util::Call
    import()
    filter() and anonymous sub

    $_, $status, filter_read and filter_read_exact, filter_del

    EXAMPLES
    Example 1: A simple filter.
    Example 2: Using the context
    Example 3: Using the context within the filter
    Example 4: Using filter_del
    Filter::Simple
    AUTHOR
    DATE

    FindBin - Locate directory of original perl script

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORTABLE VARIABLES
    KNOWN ISSUES
    KNOWN BUGS
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    GDBM_File - Perl5 access to the gdbm library.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AVAILABILITY
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Getopt::Long - Extended processing of command line options

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Command Line Options, an Introduction
    Getting Started with Getopt::Long
    Simple options
    A little bit less simple options
    Mixing command line option with other arguments
    Options with values
    Options with multiple values
    Options with hash values
    User-defined subroutines to handle options
    Options with multiple names
    Case and abbreviations
    Summary of Option Specifications

    !, +, s, i, o, f, : type [ desttype ], : number [ desttype ], : + [ desttype ]

    Advanced Possibilities
    Object oriented interface
    Thread Safety
    Documentation and help texts
    Storing option values in a hash
    Bundling
    The lonesome dash
    Argument callback
    Configuring Getopt::Long

    default, posix_default, auto_abbrev, getopt_compat, gnu_compat, gnu_getopt, require_order, permute, bundling (default: disabled), bundling_override (default: disabled), ignore_case (default: enabled), ignore_case_always (default: disabled), auto_version (default:disabled), auto_help (default:disabled), pass_through (default: disabled), prefix, prefix_pattern, long_prefix_pattern, debug (default: disabled)

    Exportable Methods

    VersionMessage, -message, -msg, -exitval, -output, HelpMessage

    Return values and Errors
    Legacy
    Default destinations
    Alternative option starters
    Configuration variables
    Trouble Shooting
    GetOptions does not return a false result when an option is not supplied
    GetOptions does not split the command line correctly
    Undefined subroutine &main::GetOptions called
    How do I put a ``-?'' option into a Getopt::Long?
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER

    Getopt::Std, getopt, getopts - Process single-character switches with switch clustering

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    --help and --version

    Hash::Util - A selection of general-utility hash subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Restricted hashes

    lock_keys, unlock_keys

    lock_value, unlock_value

    lock_hash, unlock_hash

    hash_seed

    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    I18N::Collate - compare 8-bit scalar data according to the current locale

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    I18N::LangTags - functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    the function is_language_tag($lang1)

    the function extract_language_tags($whatever)

    the function same_language_tag($lang1, $lang2)

    the function similarity_language_tag($lang1, $lang2)

    the function is_dialect_of($lang1, $lang2)

    the function super_languages($lang1)

    the function locale2language_tag($locale_identifier)

    the function encode_language_tag($lang1)

    the function alternate_language_tags($lang1)

    the function @langs = panic_languages(@accept_languages)

    the function implicate_supers( ...languages... ), the function implicate_supers_strictly( ...languages... )

    ABOUT LOWERCASING
    ABOUT UNICODE PLAINTEXT LANGUAGE TAGS
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT
    AUTHOR

    I18N::LangTags::Detect - detect the user's language preferences

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS
    ENVIRONMENT
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT
    AUTHOR

    I18N::LangTags::List -- tags and names for human languages

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    ABOUT LANGUAGE TAGS
    LIST OF LANGUAGES

    {ab} : Abkhazian, {ace} : Achinese, {ach} : Acoli, {ada} : Adangme, {ady} : Adyghe, {aa} : Afar, {afh} : Afrihili, {af} : Afrikaans, [{afa} : Afro-Asiatic (Other)], {ak} : Akan, {akk} : Akkadian, {sq} : Albanian, {ale} : Aleut, [{alg} : Algonquian languages], [{tut} : Altaic (Other)], {am} : Amharic, {i-ami} : Ami, [{apa} : Apache languages], {ar} : Arabic, {arc} : Aramaic, {arp} : Arapaho, {arn} : Araucanian, {arw} : Arawak, {hy} : Armenian, {an} : Aragonese, [{art} : Artificial (Other)], {ast} : Asturian, {as} : Assamese, [{ath} : Athapascan languages], [{aus} : Australian languages], [{map} : Austronesian (Other)], {av} : Avaric, {ae} : Avestan, {awa} : Awadhi, {ay} : Aymara, {az} : Azerbaijani, {ban} : Balinese, [{bat} : Baltic (Other)], {bal} : Baluchi, {bm} : Bambara, [{bai} : Bamileke languages], {bad} : Banda, [{bnt} : Bantu (Other)], {bas} : Basa, {ba} : Bashkir, {eu} : Basque, {btk} : Batak (Indonesia), {bej} : Beja, {be} : Belarusian, {bem} : Bemba, {bn} : Bengali, [{ber} : Berber (Other)], {bho} : Bhojpuri, {bh} : Bihari, {bik} : Bikol, {bin} : Bini, {bi} : Bislama, {bs} : Bosnian, {bra} : Braj, {br} : Breton, {bug} : Buginese, {bg} : Bulgarian, {i-bnn} : Bunun, {bua} : Buriat, {my} : Burmese, {cad} : Caddo, {car} : Carib, {ca} : Catalan, [{cau} : Caucasian (Other)], {ceb} : Cebuano, [{cel} : Celtic (Other)], [{cai} : Central American Indian (Other)], {chg} : Chagatai, [{cmc} : Chamic languages], {ch} : Chamorro, {ce} : Chechen, {chr} : Cherokee, {chy} : Cheyenne, {chb} : Chibcha, {ny} : Chichewa, {zh} : Chinese, {chn} : Chinook Jargon, {chp} : Chipewyan, {cho} : Choctaw, {cu} : Church Slavic, {chk} : Chuukese, {cv} : Chuvash, {cop} : Coptic, {kw} : Cornish, {co} : Corsican, {cr} : Cree, {mus} : Creek, [{cpe} : English-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{cpf} : French-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{cpp} : Portuguese-based Creoles and pidgins (Other)], [{crp} : Creoles and pidgins (Other)], {hr} : Croatian, [{cus} : Cushitic (Other)], {cs} : Czech, {dak} : Dakota, {da} : Danish, {dar} : Dargwa, {day} : Dayak, {i-default} : Default (Fallthru) Language, {del} : Delaware, {din} : Dinka, {dv} : Divehi, {doi} : Dogri, {dgr} : Dogrib, [{dra} : Dravidian (Other)], {dua} : Duala, {nl} : Dutch, {dum} : Middle Dutch (ca.1050-1350), {dyu} : Dyula, {dz} : Dzongkha, {efi} : Efik, {egy} : Ancient Egyptian, {eka} : Ekajuk, {elx} : Elamite, {en} : English, {enm} : Old English (1100-1500), {ang} : Old English (ca.450-1100), {i-enochian} : Enochian (Artificial), {myv} : Erzya, {eo} : Esperanto, {et} : Estonian, {ee} : Ewe, {ewo} : Ewondo, {fan} : Fang, {fat} : Fanti, {fo} : Faroese, {fj} : Fijian, {fi} : Finnish, [{fiu} : Finno-Ugrian (Other)], {fon} : Fon, {fr} : French, {frm} : Middle French (ca.1400-1600), {fro} : Old French (842-ca.1400), {fy} : Frisian, {fur} : Friulian, {ff} : Fulah, {gaa} : Ga, {gd} : Scots Gaelic, {gl} : Gallegan, {lg} : Ganda, {gay} : Gayo, {gba} : Gbaya, {gez} : Geez, {ka} : Georgian, {de} : German, {gmh} : Middle High German (ca.1050-1500), {goh} : Old High German (ca.750-1050), [{gem} : Germanic (Other)], {gil} : Gilbertese, {gon} : Gondi, {gor} : Gorontalo, {got} : Gothic, {grb} : Grebo, {grc} : Ancient Greek, {el} : Modern Greek, {gn} : Guarani, {gu} : Gujarati, {gwi} : Gwich'in, {hai} : Haida, {ht} : Haitian, {ha} : Hausa, {haw} : Hawaiian, {he} : Hebrew, {hz} : Herero, {hil} : Hiligaynon, {him} : Himachali, {hi} : Hindi, {ho} : Hiri Motu, {hit} : Hittite, {hmn} : Hmong, {hu} : Hungarian, {hup} : Hupa, {iba} : Iban, {is} : Icelandic, {io} : Ido, {ig} : Igbo, {ijo} : Ijo, {ilo} : Iloko, [{inc} : Indic (Other)], [{ine} : Indo-European (Other)], {id} : Indonesian, {inh} : Ingush, {ia} : Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association), {ie} : Interlingue, {iu} : Inuktitut, {ik} : Inupiaq, [{ira} : Iranian (Other)], {ga} : Irish, {mga} : Middle Irish (900-1200), {sga} : Old Irish (to 900), [{iro} : Iroquoian languages], {it} : Italian, {ja} : Japanese, {jv} : Javanese, {jrb} : Judeo-Arabic, {jpr} : Judeo-Persian, {kbd} : Kabardian, {kab} : Kabyle, {kac} : Kachin, {kl} : Kalaallisut, {xal} : Kalmyk, {kam} : Kamba, {kn} : Kannada, {kr} : Kanuri, {krc} : Karachay-Balkar, {kaa} : Kara-Kalpak, {kar} : Karen, {ks} : Kashmiri, {csb} : Kashubian, {kaw} : Kawi, {kk} : Kazakh, {kha} : Khasi, {km} : Khmer, [{khi} : Khoisan (Other)], {kho} : Khotanese, {ki} : Kikuyu, {kmb} : Kimbundu, {rw} : Kinyarwanda, {ky} : Kirghiz, {i-klingon} : Klingon, {kv} : Komi, {kg} : Kongo, {kok} : Konkani, {ko} : Korean, {kos} : Kosraean, {kpe} : Kpelle, {kro} : Kru, {kj} : Kuanyama, {kum} : Kumyk, {ku} : Kurdish, {kru} : Kurukh, {kut} : Kutenai, {lad} : Ladino, {lah} : Lahnda, {lam} : Lamba, {lo} : Lao, {la} : Latin, {lv} : Latvian, {lb} : Letzeburgesch, {lez} : Lezghian, {li} : Limburgish, {ln} : Lingala, {lt} : Lithuanian, {nds} : Low German, {art-lojban} : Lojban (Artificial), {loz} : Lozi, {lu} : Luba-Katanga, {lua} : Luba-Lulua, {lui} : Luiseno, {lun} : Lunda, {luo} : Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), {lus} : Lushai, {mk} : Macedonian, {mad} : Madurese, {mag} : Magahi, {mai} : Maithili, {mak} : Makasar, {mg} : Malagasy, {ms} : Malay, {ml} : Malayalam, {mt} : Maltese, {mnc} : Manchu, {mdr} : Mandar, {man} : Mandingo, {mni} : Manipuri, [{mno} : Manobo languages], {gv} : Manx, {mi} : Maori, {mr} : Marathi, {chm} : Mari, {mh} : Marshall, {mwr} : Marwari, {mas} : Masai, [{myn} : Mayan languages], {men} : Mende, {mic} : Micmac, {min} : Minangkabau, {i-mingo} : Mingo, [{mis} : Miscellaneous languages], {moh} : Mohawk, {mdf} : Moksha, {mo} : Moldavian, [{mkh} : Mon-Khmer (Other)], {lol} : Mongo, {mn} : Mongolian, {mos} : Mossi, [{mul} : Multiple languages], [{mun} : Munda languages], {nah} : Nahuatl, {nap} : Neapolitan, {na} : Nauru, {nv} : Navajo, {nd} : North Ndebele, {nr} : South Ndebele, {ng} : Ndonga, {ne} : Nepali, {new} : Newari, {nia} : Nias, [{nic} : Niger-Kordofanian (Other)], [{ssa} : Nilo-Saharan (Other)], {niu} : Niuean, {nog} : Nogai, {non} : Old Norse, [{nai} : North American Indian], {no} : Norwegian, {nb} : Norwegian Bokmal, {nn} : Norwegian Nynorsk, [{nub} : Nubian languages], {nym} : Nyamwezi, {nyn} : Nyankole, {nyo} : Nyoro, {nzi} : Nzima, {oc} : Occitan (post 1500), {oj} : Ojibwa, {or} : Oriya, {om} : Oromo, {osa} : Osage, {os} : Ossetian; Ossetic, [{oto} : Otomian languages], {pal} : Pahlavi, {i-pwn} : Paiwan, {pau} : Palauan, {pi} : Pali, {pam} : Pampanga, {pag} : Pangasinan, {pa} : Panjabi, {pap} : Papiamento, [{paa} : Papuan (Other)], {fa} : Persian, {peo} : Old Persian (ca.600-400 B.C.), [{phi} : Philippine (Other)], {phn} : Phoenician, {pon} : Pohnpeian, {pl} : Polish, {pt} : Portuguese, [{pra} : Prakrit languages], {pro} : Old Provencal (to 1500), {ps} : Pushto, {qu} : Quechua, {rm} : Raeto-Romance, {raj} : Rajasthani, {rap} : Rapanui, {rar} : Rarotongan, [{qaa - qtz} : Reserved for local use.], [{roa} : Romance (Other)], {ro} : Romanian, {rom} : Romany, {rn} : Rundi, {ru} : Russian, [{sal} : Salishan languages], {sam} : Samaritan Aramaic, {se} : Northern Sami, {sma} : Southern Sami, {smn} : Inari Sami, {smj} : Lule Sami, {sms} : Skolt Sami, [{smi} : Sami languages (Other)], {sm} : Samoan, {sad} : Sandawe, {sg} : Sango, {sa} : Sanskrit, {sat} : Santali, {sc} : Sardinian, {sas} : Sasak, {sco} : Scots, {sel} : Selkup, [{sem} : Semitic (Other)], {sr} : Serbian, {srr} : Serer, {shn} : Shan, {sn} : Shona, {sid} : Sidamo, {sgn-...} : Sign Languages, {bla} : Siksika, {sd} : Sindhi, {si} : Sinhalese, [{sit} : Sino-Tibetan (Other)], [{sio} : Siouan languages], {den} : Slave (Athapascan), [{sla} : Slavic (Other)], {sk} : Slovak, {sl} : Slovenian, {sog} : Sogdian, {so} : Somali, {son} : Songhai, {snk} : Soninke, {wen} : Sorbian languages, {nso} : Northern Sotho, {st} : Southern Sotho, [{sai} : South American Indian (Other)], {es} : Spanish, {suk} : Sukuma, {sux} : Sumerian, {su} : Sundanese, {sus} : Susu, {sw} : Swahili, {ss} : Swati, {sv} : Swedish, {syr} : Syriac, {tl} : Tagalog, {ty} : Tahitian, [{tai} : Tai (Other)], {tg} : Tajik, {tmh} : Tamashek, {ta} : Tamil, {i-tao} : Tao, {tt} : Tatar, {i-tay} : Tayal, {te} : Telugu, {ter} : Tereno, {tet} : Tetum, {th} : Thai, {bo} : Tibetan, {tig} : Tigre, {ti} : Tigrinya, {tem} : Timne, {tiv} : Tiv, {tli} : Tlingit, {tpi} : Tok Pisin, {tkl} : Tokelau, {tog} : Tonga (Nyasa), {to} : Tonga (Tonga Islands), {tsi} : Tsimshian, {ts} : Tsonga, {i-tsu} : Tsou, {tn} : Tswana, {tum} : Tumbuka, [{tup} : Tupi languages], {tr} : Turkish, {ota} : Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928), {crh} : Crimean Turkish, {tk} : Turkmen, {tvl} : Tuvalu, {tyv} : Tuvinian, {tw} : Twi, {udm} : Udmurt, {uga} : Ugaritic, {ug} : Uighur, {uk} : Ukrainian, {umb} : Umbundu, {und} : Undetermined, {ur} : Urdu, {uz} : Uzbek, {vai} : Vai, {ve} : Venda, {vi} : Vietnamese, {vo} : Volapuk, {vot} : Votic, [{wak} : Wakashan languages], {wa} : Walloon, {wal} : Walamo, {war} : Waray, {was} : Washo, {cy} : Welsh, {wo} : Wolof, {x-...} : Unregistered (Semi-Private Use), {xh} : Xhosa, {sah} : Yakut, {yao} : Yao, {yap} : Yapese, {ii} : Sichuan Yi, {yi} : Yiddish, {yo} : Yoruba, [{ypk} : Yupik languages], {znd} : Zande, [{zap} : Zapotec], {zen} : Zenaga, {za} : Zhuang, {zu} : Zulu, {zun} : Zuni

    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
    AUTHOR

    I18N::Langinfo - query locale information

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORT
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    IO - load various IO modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DEPRECATED

    IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, 'IO::Dir', DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

    METHODS

    open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), open( FILENAME, IOLAYERS ), binmode( [LAYER] )

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

    METHODS

    $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS
    HISTORY

    IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [READER, WRITER] )

    METHODS

    reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0 (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek( POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell

    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ HANDLES ] )

    METHODS

    add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, EXCEPTION [, TIMEOUT ] )

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, connected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, timeout([VAL])

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    hostpath(), peerpath()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Dir, IO::Dir - supply object methods for directory handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    new ( [ DIRNAME ] ), open ( DIRNAME ), read (), seek ( POS ), tell (), rewind (), close (), tie %hash, 'IO::Dir', DIRNAME [, OPTIONS ]

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::File, IO::File - supply object methods for filehandles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), new_tmpfile

    METHODS

    open( FILENAME [,MODE [,PERMS]] ), open( FILENAME, IOLAYERS ), binmode( [LAYER] )

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Handle, IO::Handle - supply object methods for I/O handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new (), new_from_fd ( FD, MODE )

    METHODS

    $io->fdopen ( FD, MODE ), $io->opened, $io->getline, $io->getlines, $io->ungetc ( ORD ), $io->write ( BUF, LEN [, OFFSET ] ), $io->error, $io->clearerr, $io->sync, $io->flush, $io->printflush ( ARGS ), $io->blocking ( [ BOOL ] ), $io->untaint

    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    BUGS
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Pipe, IO::Pipe - supply object methods for pipes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [READER, WRITER] )

    METHODS

    reader ([ARGS]), writer ([ARGS]), handles ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Poll, IO::Poll - Object interface to system poll call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    mask ( IO [, EVENT_MASK ] ), poll ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), events ( IO ), remove ( IO ), handles( [ EVENT_MASK ] )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Seekable, IO::Seekable - supply seek based methods for I/O objects

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $io->getpos, $io->setpos, $io->seek ( POS, WHENCE ), WHENCE=0 (SEEK_SET), WHENCE=1 (SEEK_CUR), WHENCE=2 (SEEK_END), $io->sysseek( POS, WHENCE ), $io->tell

    SEE ALSO
    HISTORY

    IO::lib::IO::Select, IO::Select - OO interface to the select system call

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ HANDLES ] )

    METHODS

    add ( HANDLES ), remove ( HANDLES ), exists ( HANDLE ), handles, can_read ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), can_write ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), has_exception ( [ TIMEOUT ] ), count (), bits(), select ( READ, WRITE, EXCEPTION [, TIMEOUT ] )

    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket, IO::Socket - Object interface to socket communications

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    accept([PKG]), socketpair(DOMAIN, TYPE, PROTOCOL), atmark, connected, protocol, sockdomain, sockopt(OPT [, VAL]), socktype, timeout([VAL])

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket::INET, IO::Socket::INET - Object interface for AF_INET domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    sockaddr (), sockport (), sockhost (), peeraddr (), peerport (), peerhost ()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IO::lib::IO::Socket::UNIX, IO::Socket::UNIX - Object interface for AF_UNIX domain sockets

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ARGS] )

    METHODS

    hostpath(), peerpath()

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::Open2, open2 - open a process for both reading and writing

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING
    SEE ALSO

    IPC::Open3, open3 - open a process for reading, writing, and error handling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    WARNING

    IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV - SysV IPC constants

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ftok( PATH, ID )

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV::Msg, IPC::Msg - SysV Msg IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    new ( KEY , FLAGS ), id, rcv ( BUF, LEN [, TYPE [, FLAGS ]] ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), snd ( TYPE, MSG [, FLAGS ] ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    IPC::SysV::Semaphore, IPC::Semaphore - SysV Semaphore IPC object class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    new ( KEY , NSEMS , FLAGS ), getall, getncnt ( SEM ), getpid ( SEM ), getval ( SEM ), getzcnt ( SEM ), id, op ( OPLIST ), remove, set ( STAT ), set ( NAME => VALUE [, NAME => VALUE ...] ), setall ( VALUES ), setval ( N , VALUE ), stat

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST, reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST

    KNOWN BUGS
    SUGGESTED ADDITIONS
    COPYRIGHT

    List::Utilib::List::Util, List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    first BLOCK LIST, max LIST, maxstr LIST, min LIST, minstr LIST, reduce BLOCK LIST, shuffle LIST, sum LIST

    KNOWN BUGS
    SUGGESTED ADDITIONS
    COPYRIGHT

    List::Utilib::Scalar::Util, Scalar::Util - A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isvstring EXPR, isweak EXPR, looks_like_number EXPR, openhandle FH, refaddr EXPR, reftype EXPR, set_prototype CODEREF, PROTOTYPE, tainted EXPR, weaken REF

    KNOWN BUGS
    COPYRIGHT
    BLATANT PLUG

    Locale::Constants - constants for Locale codes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Locale::Language, Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Locale::Country - ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric

    CONVERSION ROUTINES

    code2country( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), country2code( STRING, [ CODESET ] ), country_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET )

    QUERY ROUTINES

    all_country_codes( [ CODESET ] ), all_country_names( [ CODESET ] )

    SEMI-PRIVATE ROUTINES
    alias_code
    rename_country
    EXAMPLES
    DOMAIN NAMES
    KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Locale::Language, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, Locale::SubCountry, ISO 3166-1, http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html, http://www.egt.ie/standards/iso3166/iso3166-1-en.html, http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/docs/app-d-1.html

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Locale::Currency - ISO three letter codes for currency identification (ISO 4217)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    XTS, XXX

    CONVERSION ROUTINES

    code2currency(), currency2code()

    QUERY ROUTINES

    all_currency_codes(), all_currency_names()

    EXAMPLES
    KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Locale::Country, Locale::Script, ISO 4217:1995, http://www.bsi-global.com/iso4217currency

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Locale::Language - ISO two letter codes for language identification (ISO 639)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONVERSION ROUTINES

    code2language(), language2code()

    QUERY ROUTINES

    all_language_codes(), all_language_names()

    EXAMPLES
    KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Locale::Country, Locale::Script, Locale::Currency, ISO 639:1988 (E/F), http://lcweb.loc.gov/standards/iso639-2/langhome.html

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Locale::Maketext - framework for localization

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    QUICK OVERVIEW
    METHODS
    Construction Methods
    The ``maketext'' Method

    $lh->fail_with or $lh->fail_with(PARAM), $lh->failure_handler_auto

    Utility Methods

    $language->quant($number, $singular), $language->quant($number, $singular, $plural), $language->quant($number, $singular, $plural, $negative), $language->numf($number), $language->sprintf($format, @items), $language->language_tag(), $language->encoding()

    Language Handle Attributes and Internals
    LANGUAGE CLASS HIERARCHIES
    ENTRIES IN EACH LEXICON
    BRACKET NOTATION
    AUTO LEXICONS
    CONTROLLING LOOKUP FAILURE
    HOW TO USE MAKETEXT
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMER
    AUTHOR

    Locale::Maketext::TPJ13 -- article about software localization

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Localization and Perl: gettext breaks, Maketext fixes
    A Localization Horror Story: It Could Happen To You
    The Linguistic View
    Breaking gettext
    Replacing gettext
    Buzzwords: Abstraction and Encapsulation
    Buzzword: Isomorphism
    Buzzword: Inheritance
    Buzzword: Concision
    The Devil in the Details
    The Proof in the Pudding: Localizing Web Sites
    References

    Locale::Script - ISO codes for script identification (ISO 15924)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    alpha-2, alpha-3, numeric

    SPECIAL CODES
    CONVERSION ROUTINES

    code2script( CODE, [ CODESET ] ), script2code( STRING, [ CODESET ] ), script_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET )

    QUERY ROUTINES

    all_script_codes ( [ CODESET ] ), all_script_names ( [ CODESET ] )

    EXAMPLES
    KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Locale::Language, Locale::Currency, Locale::Country, ISO 15924, http://www.evertype.com/standards/iso15924/

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    MIME::Base64 - Encoding and decoding of base64 strings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    encode_base64($str), encode_base64($str, $eol);, decode_base64($str)

    DIAGNOSTICS

    Premature end of base64 data, Premature padding of base64 data, Wide character in subroutine entry

    EXAMPLES
    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    MIME::Base64::QuotedPrint, MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    encode_qp($str), encode_qp($str, $eol), encode_qp($str, $eol, $binmode), decode_qp($str);

    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    MIME::QuotedPrint - Encoding and decoding of quoted-printable strings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    encode_qp($str), encode_qp($str, $eol), encode_qp($str, $eol, $binmode), decode_qp($str);

    COPYRIGHT
    SEE ALSO

    Math::BigFloat - Arbitrary size floating point math package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Canonical notation
    Output
    mantissa(), exponent() and parts()
    Accuracy vs. Precision
    Rounding

    ffround ( +$scale ), ffround ( -$scale ), ffround ( 0 ), fround ( +$scale ), fround ( -$scale ) and fround ( 0 )

    METHODS
    accuracy
    precision()
    Autocreating constants
    Math library
    Using Math::BigInt::Lite
    BUGS
    CAVEATS

    stringify, bstr(), bdiv, Modifying and =, bpow, precision() vs. accuracy()

    SEE ALSO
    LICENSE
    AUTHORS

    Math::BigInt - Arbitrary size integer/float math package

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Input, Output

    METHODS
    config
    accuracy
    precision
    brsft
    new
    bnan
    bzero
    binf
    bone
    is_one()/is_zero()/is_nan()/is_inf()
    is_pos()/is_neg()
            $x->is_pos();                   # true if > 0
            $x->is_neg();                   # true if < 0
    is_odd()/is_even()/is_int()
    bcmp
    bacmp
    sign
    digit
    bneg
    babs
    bnorm
    bnot
    binc
    bdec
    badd
    bsub
    bmul
    bdiv
    bmod
    bmodinv
    bmodpow
    bpow
    blsft
    brsft
    band
    bior
    bxor
    bnot
    bsqrt
    bfac
    round
    bround
    bfround
    bfloor
    bceil
    bgcd
    blcm
    exponent
    mantissa
    parts
    copy
    as_int
    bsstr
    as_hex
    as_bin
    ACCURACY and PRECISION
    Precision P
    Accuracy A
    Fallback F
    Rounding mode R

    'trunc', 'even', 'odd', '+inf', '-inf', 'zero', Precision, Accuracy (significant digits), Setting/Accessing, Creating numbers, Usage, Precedence, Overriding globals, Local settings, Rounding, Default values, Remarks

    Infinity and Not a Number

    oct()/hex(), log(-inf), exp(), cos(), sin(), atan2()

    INTERNALS
    MATH LIBRARY
    SIGN
    mantissa(), exponent() and parts()
    EXAMPLES
      use Math::BigInt;
    Autocreating constants
    PERFORMANCE
    Alternative math libraries
    SUBCLASSING
    Subclassing Math::BigInt
    UPGRADING
    Auto-upgrade

    bsqrt(), div(), blog()

    BUGS

    broot() does not work, Out of Memory!, Fails to load Calc on Perl prior 5.6.0

    CAVEATS

    bstr(), bsstr() and 'cmp', int(), length, bdiv, infinity handling, Modifying and =, bpow, Overloading -$x, Mixing different object types, bsqrt(), brsft()

    LICENSE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    Math::BigInt::Calc - Pure Perl module to support Math::BigInt

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    STORAGE
    METHODS
    WRAP YOUR OWN
    LICENSE

    This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    Math::BigInt::CalcEmu - Emulate low-level math with BigInt code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS
    __emu_bxor
    __emu_band
    __emu_bior
    LICENSE

    This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

    AUTHORS
    SEE ALSO

    Math::BigRat - Arbitrary big rational numbers

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    MATH LIBRARY
    METHODS
    new()
    numerator()
    denominator()
            $d = $x->denominator();
    parts()
    as_int()
    as_hex()
    as_bin()
    bfac()
    blog()
    bround()/round()/bfround()
    bmod()
    is_one()
    is_zero()
    is_pos()
    is_neg()
    is_int()
    is_odd()
    is_even()
    bceil()
    bfloor()
            $x->bfloor();
    bsqrt()
            $x->bsqrt();
    config
    BUGS

    inf handling (partial), NaN handling (partial), rounding (not implemented except for bceil/bfloor), $x ** $y where $y is not an integer, bmod(), blog(), bmodinv() and bmodpow() (partial)

    LICENSE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    Math::Complex - complex numbers and associated mathematical functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OPERATIONS
    CREATION
    DISPLAYING
    CHANGED IN PERL 5.6
    USAGE
    ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO OR LOGARITHM OF ZERO
    ERRORS DUE TO INDIGESTIBLE ARGUMENTS
    BUGS
    AUTHORS

    Math::Trig - trigonometric functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

    tan

    ERRORS DUE TO DIVISION BY ZERO
    SIMPLE (REAL) ARGUMENTS, COMPLEX RESULTS
    PLANE ANGLE CONVERSIONS
    RADIAL COORDINATE CONVERSIONS
    COORDINATE SYSTEMS
  • -D ANGLE CONVERSIONS

    cartesian_to_cylindrical, cartesian_to_spherical, cylindrical_to_cartesian, cylindrical_to_spherical, spherical_to_cartesian, spherical_to_cylindrical

  • GREAT CIRCLE DISTANCES AND DIRECTIONS
    EXAMPLES
    CAVEAT FOR GREAT CIRCLE FORMULAS
    BUGS
    AUTHORS

    Memoize - Make functions faster by trading space for time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DETAILS
    OPTIONS
    INSTALL
    NORMALIZER
    SCALAR_CACHE, LIST_CACHE

    MEMORY, HASH, TIE, FAULT, MERGE

    OTHER FACILITIES
    unmemoize
    flush_cache
    CAVEATS
    PERSISTENT CACHE SUPPORT
    EXPIRATION SUPPORT
    BUGS
    MAILING LIST
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
    THANK YOU

    Memoize::AnyDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for AnyDBM_File for Storable use

    DESCRIPTION

    Memoize::Expire - Plug-in module for automatic expiration of memoized values

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    INTERFACE
     TIEHASH,  EXISTS,  STORE
    ALTERNATIVES
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Memoize::ExpireFile - test for Memoize expiration semantics

    DESCRIPTION

    Memoize::ExpireTest - test for Memoize expiration semantics

    DESCRIPTION

    Memoize::NDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for NDBM_File for Storable use

    DESCRIPTION

    Memoize::SDBM_File - glue to provide EXISTS for SDBM_File for Storable use

    DESCRIPTION

    Memoize::Storable - store Memoized data in Storable database

    DESCRIPTION

    NDBM_File - Tied access to ndbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, O_RDWR

    DIAGNOSTICS
    ndbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ...
    BUGS AND WARNINGS

    NEXT - Provide a pseudo-class NEXT (et al) that allows method redispatch

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Enforcing redispatch
    Avoiding repetitions
    Invoking all versions of a method with a single call
    Using EVERY methods
    AUTHOR
    BUGS AND IRRITATIONS
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::Cmd - Network Command class (as used by FTP, SMTP etc)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    USER METHODS

    debug ( VALUE ), message (), code (), ok (), status (), datasend ( DATA ), dataend ()

    CLASS METHODS

    debug_print ( DIR, TEXT ), debug_text ( TEXT ), command ( CMD [, ARGS, ... ]), unsupported (), response (), parse_response ( TEXT ), getline (), ungetline ( TEXT ), rawdatasend ( DATA ), read_until_dot (), tied_fh ()

    EXPORTS
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::Config - Local configuration data for libnet

    SYNOPSYS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    requires_firewall HOST

    NetConfig VALUES

    nntp_hosts, snpp_hosts, pop3_hosts, smtp_hosts, ph_hosts, daytime_hosts, time_hosts, inet_domain, ftp_firewall, ftp_firewall_type, ftp_ext_passive, ftp_int_pasive, local_netmask, test_hosts, test_exists

    Net::Domain - Attempt to evaluate the current host's internet name and domain

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    hostfqdn (), hostname (), hostdomain ()

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::FTP - FTP Client class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OVERVIEW
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ([ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ])

    METHODS

    login ([LOGIN [,PASSWORD [, ACCOUNT] ] ]), authorize ( [AUTH [, RESP]]), site (ARGS), ascii, binary, rename ( OLDNAME, NEWNAME ), delete ( FILENAME ), cwd ( [ DIR ] ), cdup (), pwd (), restart ( WHERE ), rmdir ( DIR [, RECURSE ]), mkdir ( DIR [, RECURSE ]), alloc ( SIZE [, RECORD_SIZE] ), ls ( [ DIR ] ), dir ( [ DIR ] ), get ( REMOTE_FILE [, LOCAL_FILE [, WHERE]] ), put ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), put_unique ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), append ( LOCAL_FILE [, REMOTE_FILE ] ), unique_name (), mdtm ( FILE ), size ( FILE ), supported ( CMD ), hash ( [FILEHANDLE_GLOB_REF],[ BYTES_PER_HASH_MARK] ), nlst ( [ DIR ] ), list ( [ DIR ] ), retr ( FILE ), stor ( FILE ), stou ( FILE ), appe ( FILE ), port ( [ PORT ] ), pasv (), pasv_xfer ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ), pasv_xfer_unique ( SRC_FILE, DEST_SERVER [, DEST_FILE ] ), pasv_wait ( NON_PASV_SERVER ), abort (), quit ()

    Methods for the adventurous

    quot (CMD [,ARGS])

    THE dataconn CLASS

    read ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT ] ), write ( BUFFER, SIZE [, TIMEOUT ] ), bytes_read (), abort (), close ()

    UNIMPLEMENTED

    SMNT, HELP, MODE, SYST, STAT, STRU, REIN

    REPORTING BUGS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO
    USE EXAMPLES

    http://www.csh.rit.edu/~adam/Progs/

    CREDITS
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::NNTP - NNTP Client class

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ])

    METHODS

    article ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), body ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), head ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ], [FH] ), articlefh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), bodyfh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), headfh ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), nntpstat ( [ MSGID|MSGNUM ] ), group ( [ GROUP ] ), ihave ( MSGID [, MESSAGE ]), last (), date (), postok (), authinfo ( USER, PASS ), list (), newgroups ( SINCE [, DISTRIBUTIONS ]), newnews ( SINCE [, GROUPS [, DISTRIBUTIONS ]]), next (), post ( [ MESSAGE ] ), postfh (), slave (), quit ()

    Extension methods

    newsgroups ( [ PATTERN ] ), distributions (), subscriptions (), overview_fmt (), active_times (), active ( [ PATTERN ] ), xgtitle ( PATTERN ), xhdr ( HEADER, MESSAGE-SPEC ), xover ( MESSAGE-SPEC ), xpath ( MESSAGE-ID ), xpat ( HEADER, PATTERN, MESSAGE-SPEC), xrover, listgroup ( [ GROUP ] ), reader

    UNSUPPORTED
    DEFINITIONS

    MESSAGE-SPEC, PATTERN, Examples, [^]-], *bdc, [0-9a-zA-Z], a??d

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::POP3 - Post Office Protocol 3 Client class (RFC1939)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ] 0

    METHODS

    auth ( USERNAME, PASSWORD ), user ( USER ), pass ( PASS ), login ( [ USER [, PASS ]] ), apop ( [ USER [, PASS ]] ), banner (), capa (), capabilities (), top ( MSGNUM [, NUMLINES ] ), list ( [ MSGNUM ] ), get ( MSGNUM [, FH ] ), getfh ( MSGNUM ), last (), popstat (), ping ( USER ), uidl ( [ MSGNUM ] ), delete ( MSGNUM ), reset (), quit ()

    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::Ping - check a remote host for reachability

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Functions

    Net::Ping->new([$proto [, $def_timeout [, $bytes [, $device [, $tos ]]]]]);, $p->ping($host [, $timeout]);, $p->source_verify( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->service_check( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->tcp_service_check( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->hires( { 0 | 1 } );, $p->bind($local_addr);, $p->open($host);, $p->ack( [ $host ] );, $p->nack( $failed_ack_host );, $p->close();, pingecho($host [, $timeout]);

    NOTES
    INSTALL
    BUGS
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Client

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    CONSTRUCTOR

    new ( [ HOST ] [, OPTIONS ] )

    METHODS

    banner (), domain (), hello ( DOMAIN ), host (), etrn ( DOMAIN ), auth ( USERNAME, PASSWORD ), mail ( ADDRESS [, OPTIONS] ), send ( ADDRESS ), send_or_mail ( ADDRESS ), send_and_mail ( ADDRESS ), reset (), recipient ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS, [...]] [, OPTIONS ] ), to ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), cc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), bcc ( ADDRESS [, ADDRESS [...]] ), data ( [ DATA ] ), expand ( ADDRESS ), verify ( ADDRESS ), help ( [ $subject ] ), quit ()

    ADDRESSES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::Time - time and daytime network client interface

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    inet_time ( [HOST [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]]), inet_daytime ( [HOST [, PROTOCOL [, TIMEOUT]]])

    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT

    Net::hostent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gethost*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::libnetFAQ, libnetFAQ - libnet Frequently Asked Questions

    DESCRIPTION
    Where to get this document
    How to contribute to this document
    Author and Copyright Information
    Disclaimer
    Obtaining and installing libnet
    What is libnet ?
    Which version of perl do I need ?
    What other modules do I need ?
    What machines support libnet ?
    Where can I get the latest libnet release
    Using Net::FTP
    How do I download files from an FTP server ?
    How do I transfer files in binary mode ?
    How can I get the size of a file on a remote FTP server ?
    How can I get the modification time of a file on a remote FTP server ?
    How can I change the permissions of a file on a remote server ?
    Can I do a reget operation like the ftp command ?
    How do I get a directory listing from an FTP server ?
    Changing directory to ``'' does not fail ?
    I am behind a SOCKS firewall, but the Firewall option does not work ?
    I am behind an FTP proxy firewall, but cannot access machines outside ?
    My ftp proxy firewall does not listen on port 21
    Is it possible to change the file permissions of a file on an FTP server ?
    I have seen scripts call a method message, but cannot find it documented ?
    Why does Net::FTP not implement mput and mget methods
    Using Net::SMTP
    Why can't the part of an Email address after the @ be used as the hostname ?
    Why does Net::SMTP not do DNS MX lookups ?
    The verify method always returns true ?
    Debugging scripts
    How can I debug my scripts that use Net::* modules ?
    AUTHOR AND COPYRIGHT

    Net::netent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getnet*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::protoent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getproto*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Net::servent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getserv*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Netrc, Net::Netrc - OO interface to users netrc file

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    THE .netrc FILE

    machine name, default, login name, password string, account string, macdef name

    CONSTRUCTOR

    lookup ( MACHINE [, LOGIN ])

    METHODS

    login (), password (), account (), lpa ()

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT

    O - Generic interface to Perl Compiler backends

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONVENTIONS
    IMPLEMENTATION
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    ODBM_File - Tied access to odbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, O_RDWR

    DIAGNOSTICS
    odbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ...
    BUGS AND WARNINGS

    Opcode - Disable named opcodes when compiling perl code

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    WARNING
    Operator Names and Operator Lists

    an operator name (opname), an operator tag name (optag), a negated opname or optag, an operator set (opset)

    Opcode Functions

    opcodes, opset (OP, ...), opset_to_ops (OPSET), opset_to_hex (OPSET), full_opset, empty_opset, invert_opset (OPSET), verify_opset (OPSET, ...), define_optag (OPTAG, OPSET), opmask_add (OPSET), opmask, opdesc (OP, ...), opdump (PAT)

    Manipulating Opsets
    TO DO (maybe)
    Predefined Opcode Tags

    :base_core, :base_mem, :base_loop, :base_io, :base_orig, :base_math, :base_thread, :default, :filesys_read, :sys_db, :browse, :filesys_open, :filesys_write, :subprocess, :ownprocess, :others, :still_to_be_decided, :dangerous

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS

    Opcode::Safe, Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    a new namespace, an operator mask

    WARNING
    RECENT CHANGES
    Methods in class Safe

    permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

    Some Safety Issues

    Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

    AUTHOR

    Opcode::ops, ops - Perl pragma to restrict unsafe operations when compiling

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    POSIX - Perl interface to IEEE Std 1003.1

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    CAVEATS
    FUNCTIONS

    _exit, abort, abs, access, acos, alarm, asctime, asin, assert, atan, atan2, atexit, atof, atoi, atol, bsearch, calloc, ceil, chdir, chmod, chown, clearerr, clock, close, closedir, cos, cosh, creat, ctermid, ctime, cuserid, difftime, div, dup, dup2, errno, execl, execle, execlp, execv, execve, execvp, exit, exp, fabs, fclose, fcntl, fdopen, feof, ferror, fflush, fgetc, fgetpos, fgets, fileno, floor, fmod, fopen, fork, fpathconf, fprintf, fputc, fputs, fread, free, freopen, frexp, fscanf, fseek, fsetpos, fstat, fsync, ftell, fwrite, getc, getchar, getcwd, getegid, getenv, geteuid, getgid, getgrgid, getgrnam, getgroups, getlogin, getpgrp, getpid, getppid, getpwnam, getpwuid, gets, getuid, gmtime, isalnum, isalpha, isatty, iscntrl, isdigit, isgraph, islower, isprint, ispunct, isspace, isupper, isxdigit, kill, labs, ldexp, ldiv, link, localeconv, localtime, log, log10, longjmp, lseek, malloc, mblen, mbstowcs, mbtowc, memchr, memcmp, memcpy, memmove, memset, mkdir, mkfifo, mktime, modf, nice, offsetof, open, opendir, pathconf, pause, perror, pipe, pow, printf, putc, putchar, puts, qsort, raise, rand, read, readdir, realloc, remove, rename, rewind, rewinddir, rmdir, scanf, setgid, setjmp, setlocale, setpgid, setsid, setuid, sigaction, siglongjmp, sigpending, sigprocmask, sigsetjmp, sigsuspend, sin, sinh, sleep, sprintf, sqrt, srand, sscanf, stat, strcat, strchr, strcmp, strcoll, strcpy, strcspn, strerror, strftime, strlen, strncat, strncmp, strncpy, strpbrk, strrchr, strspn, strstr, strtod, strtok, strtol, strtoul, strxfrm, sysconf, system, tan, tanh, tcdrain, tcflow, tcflush, tcgetpgrp, tcsendbreak, tcsetpgrp, time, times, tmpfile, tmpnam, tolower, toupper, ttyname, tzname, tzset, umask, uname, ungetc, unlink, utime, vfprintf, vprintf, vsprintf, wait, waitpid, wcstombs, wctomb, write

    CLASSES
    POSIX::SigAction

    new, handler, mask, flags, safe

    POSIX::SigSet

    new, addset, delset, emptyset, fillset, ismember

    POSIX::Termios

    new, getattr, getcc, getcflag, getiflag, getispeed, getlflag, getoflag, getospeed, setattr, setcc, setcflag, setiflag, setispeed, setlflag, setoflag, setospeed, Baud rate values, Terminal interface values, c_cc field values, c_cflag field values, c_iflag field values, c_lflag field values, c_oflag field values

    PATHNAME CONSTANTS

    Constants

    POSIX CONSTANTS

    Constants

    SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

    Constants

    ERRNO

    Constants

    FCNTL

    Constants

    FLOAT

    Constants

    LIMITS

    Constants

    LOCALE

    Constants

    MATH

    Constants

    SIGNAL

    Constants

    STAT

    Constants, Macros

    STDLIB

    Constants

    STDIO

    Constants

    TIME

    Constants

    UNISTD

    Constants

    WAIT

    Constants, WNOHANG, WUNTRACED, Macros, WIFEXITED, WEXITSTATUS, WIFSIGNALED, WTERMSIG, WIFSTOPPED, WSTOPSIG

    PerlIO - On demand loader for PerlIO layers and root of PerlIO::* name space

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    :unix, :stdio, :perlio, :crlf, :mmap, :utf8, :bytes, :raw, :pop, :win32

    Custom Layers

    :encoding, :via

    Alternatives to raw
    Defaults and how to override them
    Querying the layers of filehandles
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    PerlIO::encoding - encoding layer

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO

    PerlIO::scalar - in-memory IO, scalar IO

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    IMPLEMENTATION NOTE

    PerlIO::via - Helper class for PerlIO layers implemented in perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPECTED METHODS

    $class->PUSHED([$mode[,$fh]]), $obj->POPPED([$fh]), $obj->UTF8($bellowFlag,[$fh]), $obj->OPEN($path,$mode[,$fh]), $obj->BINMODE([,$fh]), $obj->FDOPEN($fd[,$fh]), $obj->SYSOPEN($path,$imode,$perm,[,$fh]), $obj->FILENO($fh), $obj->READ($buffer,$len,$fh), $obj->WRITE($buffer,$fh), $obj->FILL($fh), $obj->CLOSE($fh), $obj->SEEK($posn,$whence,$fh), $obj->TELL($fh), $obj->UNREAD($buffer,$fh), $obj->FLUSH($fh), $obj->SETLINEBUF($fh), $obj->CLEARERR($fh), $obj->ERROR($fh), $obj->EOF($fh)

    EXAMPLES
    Example - a Hexadecimal Handle

    PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint - PerlIO layer for quoted-printable strings

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    REQUIRED MODULES
    SEE ALSO
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    COPYRIGHT

    Pod::Checker, podchecker() - check pod documents for syntax errors

    SYNOPSIS
    OPTIONS/ARGUMENTS
    podchecker()

    -warnings => val

    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS
    Errors

    empty =headn, =over on line N without closing =back, =item without previous =over, =back without previous =over, No argument for =begin, =end without =begin, Nested =begin's, =for without formatter specification, unresolved internal link NAME, Unknown command ``CMD'', Unknown interior-sequence ``SEQ'', nested commands CMD<...CMD<...>...>, garbled entity STRING, Entity number out of range, malformed link L<>, nonempty Z<>, empty X<>, Spurious text after =pod / =cut, Spurious character(s) after =back

    Warnings

    multiple occurrence of link target name, line containing nothing but whitespace in paragraph, file does not start with =head, previous =item has no contents, preceding non-item paragraph(s), =item type mismatch (one vs. two), N unescaped <> in paragraph, Unknown entity, No items in =over, No argument for =item, empty section in previous paragraph, Verbatim paragraph in NAME section, =headn without preceding higher level

    Hyperlinks

    ignoring leading/trailing whitespace in link, (section) in '$page' deprecated, alternative text/node '%s' contains non-escaped | or /

    RETURN VALUE
    EXAMPLES
    INTERFACE

    Pod::Checker->new( %options )

    $checker->poderror( @args ), $checker->poderror( {%opts}, @args )

    $checker->num_errors()

    $checker->num_warnings()

    $checker->name()

    $checker->node()

    $checker->idx()

    $checker->hyperlink()

    AUTHOR

    Pod::Find - find POD documents in directory trees

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    pod_find( { %opts } , @directories )

    -verbose => 1, -perl => 1, -script => 1, -inc => 1

    simplify_name( $str )
    pod_where( { %opts }, $pod )

    -inc => 1, -dirs => [ $dir1, $dir2, ... ], -verbose => 1

    contains_pod( $file , $verbose )
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Html - module to convert pod files to HTML

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    ARGUMENTS

    backlink, cachedir, css, flush, header, help, hiddendirs, htmldir, htmlroot, index, infile, libpods, netscape, outfile, podpath, podroot, quiet, recurse, title, verbose

    EXAMPLE
    ENVIRONMENT
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT

    Pod::InputObjects - objects representing POD input paragraphs, commands, etc.

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION

    package Pod::InputSource, package Pod::Paragraph, package Pod::InteriorSequence, package Pod::ParseTree

    Pod::InputSource
    new()
    name()
    handle()
    was_cutting()
    Pod::Paragraph
    Pod::Paragraph->new()
    $pod_para->cmd_name()
    $pod_para->text()
    $pod_para->raw_text()
    $pod_para->cmd_prefix()
    $pod_para->cmd_separator()
    $pod_para->parse_tree()
    $pod_para->file_line()
    Pod::InteriorSequence
    Pod::InteriorSequence->new()
    $pod_seq->cmd_name()
    $pod_seq->prepend()
    $pod_seq->append()
    $pod_seq->nested()
    $pod_seq->raw_text()
    $pod_seq->left_delimiter()
    $pod_seq->right_delimiter()
    $pod_seq->parse_tree()
    $pod_seq->file_line()
    Pod::InteriorSequence::DESTROY()
    Pod::ParseTree
    Pod::ParseTree->new()
    $ptree->top()
    $ptree->children()
    $ptree->prepend()
    $ptree->append()
    $ptree->raw_text()
    Pod::ParseTree::DESTROY()
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::LaTeX - Convert Pod data to formatted Latex

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OBJECT METHODS

    initialize

    Data Accessors

    AddPreamble

    AddPostamble

    Head1Level

    Label

    LevelNoNum

    MakeIndex

    ReplaceNAMEwithSection

    StartWithNewPage

    TableOfContents

    UniqueLabels

    UserPreamble

    UserPostamble

    Lists

    Subclassed methods

    begin_pod

    end_pod

    command

    verbatim

    textblock

    interior_sequence

    List Methods

    begin_list

    end_list

    add_item

    Methods for headings

    head

    Internal methods

    _output

    _replace_special_chars

    _replace_special_chars_late

    _create_label

    _create_index

    _clean_latex_commands

    _split_delimited

    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT
    REVISION

    Pod::Man - Convert POD data to formatted *roff input

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    center, date, fixed, fixedbold, fixeditalic, fixedbolditalic, name, quotes, release, section

    DIAGNOSTICS

    roff font should be 1 or 2 chars, not ``%s'', Invalid link %s, Invalid quote specification ``%s'', %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph ``%s'', %s:%d: Unknown escape E<%s>, %s:%d: Unknown formatting code %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back

    BUGS
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::ParseLink - Parse an L<> formatting code in POD text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::ParseUtils - helpers for POD parsing and conversion

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Pod::List

    Pod::List->new()

    $list->file()

    $list->start()

    $list->indent()

    $list->type()

    $list->rx()

    $list->item()

    $list->parent()

    $list->tag()

    Pod::Hyperlink

    Pod::Hyperlink->new()

    $link->parse($string)

    $link->markup($string)

    $link->text()

    $link->warning()

    $link->file(), $link->line()

    $link->page()

    $link->node()

    $link->alttext()

    $link->type()

    $link->link()

    Pod::Cache

    Pod::Cache->new()

    $cache->item()

    $cache->find_page($name)

    Pod::Cache::Item

    Pod::Cache::Item->new()

    $cacheitem->page()

    $cacheitem->description()

    $cacheitem->path()

    $cacheitem->file()

    $cacheitem->nodes()

    $cacheitem->find_node($name)

    $cacheitem->idx()

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Parser - base class for creating POD filters and translators

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION
    QUICK OVERVIEW
    PARSING OPTIONS

    -want_nonPODs (default: unset), -process_cut_cmd (default: unset), -warnings (default: unset)

    RECOMMENDED SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
    command()

    $cmd, $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    verbatim()

    $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    textblock()

    $text, $line_num, $pod_para

    interior_sequence()
    OPTIONAL SUBROUTINE/METHOD OVERRIDES
    new()
    initialize()
    begin_pod()
    begin_input()
    end_input()
    end_pod()
    preprocess_line()
    preprocess_paragraph()
    METHODS FOR PARSING AND PROCESSING
    parse_text()

    -expand_seq => code-ref|method-name, -expand_text => code-ref|method-name, -expand_ptree => code-ref|method-name

    interpolate()
    parse_paragraph()
    parse_from_filehandle()
    parse_from_file()
    ACCESSOR METHODS
    errorsub()
    cutting()
    parseopts()
    output_file()
    output_handle()
    input_file()
    input_handle()
    input_streams()
    top_stream()
    PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
    _push_input_stream()
    _pop_input_stream()
    TREE-BASED PARSING
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToChecker - let Perldoc check Pod for errors

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToMan - let Perldoc render Pod as man pages

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEAT
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToNroff - let Perldoc convert Pod to nroff

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEAT
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToPod - let Perldoc render Pod as ... Pod!

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToRtf - let Perldoc render Pod as RTF

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToText - let Perldoc render Pod as plaintext

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEAT
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToTk - let Perldoc use Tk::Pod to render Pod

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Perldoc::ToXml - let Perldoc render Pod as XML

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    SEE ALSO
    COPYRIGHT AND DISCLAIMERS
    AUTHOR

    Pod::PlainText - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    alt, indent, loose, sentence, width

    DIAGNOSTICS

    Bizarre space in item, Can't open %s for reading: %s, Unknown escape: %s, Unknown sequence: %s, Unmatched =back

    RESTRICTIONS
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Plainer - Perl extension for converting Pod to old style Pod.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORT
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Pod::Select, podselect() - extract selected sections of POD from input

    SYNOPSIS
    REQUIRES
    EXPORTS
    DESCRIPTION
    SECTION SPECIFICATIONS
    RANGE SPECIFICATIONS
    OBJECT METHODS
    curr_headings()
    select()
    add_selection()
    clear_selections()
    match_section()
    is_selected()
    EXPORTED FUNCTIONS
    podselect()

    -output, -sections, -ranges

    PRIVATE METHODS AND DATA
    _compile_section_spec()
    $self->{_SECTION_HEADINGS}
    $self->{_SELECTED_SECTIONS}
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Pod::Text - Convert POD data to formatted ASCII text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    alt, code, indent, loose, margin, quotes, sentence, width

    DIAGNOSTICS

    Bizarre space in item, Item called without tag, Can't open %s for reading: %s, Invalid quote specification ``%s'', %s:%d: Unknown command paragraph: %s, %s:%d: Unknown escape: %s, %s:%d: Unknown formatting code: %s, %s:%d: Unmatched =back

    RESTRICTIONS
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::Text::Color - Convert POD data to formatted color ASCII text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::Text::Overstrike - Convert POD data to formatted overstrike text

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::Text::Termcap - Convert POD data to ASCII text with format escapes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Pod::Usage, pod2usage() - print a usage message from embedded pod documentation

    SYNOPSIS
    ARGUMENTS

    -message, -msg, -exitval, -verbose, -section, -output, -input, -pathlist, -noperldoc

    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    Recommended Use
    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    SDBM_File - Tied access to sdbm files

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    O_RDONLY, O_WRONLY, O_RDWR

    DIAGNOSTICS
    sdbm store returned -1, errno 22, key "..." at ...
    BUGS AND WARNINGS

    Safe - Compile and execute code in restricted compartments

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    a new namespace, an operator mask

    WARNING
    RECENT CHANGES
    Methods in class Safe

    permit (OP, ...), permit_only (OP, ...), deny (OP, ...), deny_only (OP, ...), trap (OP, ...), untrap (OP, ...), share (NAME, ...), share_from (PACKAGE, ARRAYREF), varglob (VARNAME), reval (STRING), rdo (FILENAME), root (NAMESPACE), mask (MASK)

    Some Safety Issues

    Memory, CPU, Snooping, Signals, State Changes

    AUTHOR

    Scalar::Util - A selection of general-utility scalar subroutines

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    blessed EXPR, dualvar NUM, STRING, isvstring EXPR, isweak EXPR, looks_like_number EXPR, openhandle FH, refaddr EXPR, reftype EXPR, set_prototype CODEREF, PROTOTYPE, tainted EXPR, weaken REF

    KNOWN BUGS
    COPYRIGHT
    BLATANT PLUG

    Search::Dict, look - search for key in dictionary file

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    SelectSaver - save and restore selected file handle

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    SelfLoader - load functions only on demand

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    The __DATA__ token
    SelfLoader autoloading
    Autoloading and package lexicals
    SelfLoader and AutoLoader
    __DATA__, __END__, and the FOOBAR::DATA filehandle.
    Classes and inherited methods.
    Multiple packages and fully qualified subroutine names

    Shell - run shell commands transparently within perl

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Caveats
    Escaping Magic Characters
    Configuration
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Socket, sockaddr_in, sockaddr_un, inet_aton, inet_ntoa - load the C socket.h defines and structure manipulators

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    inet_aton HOSTNAME, inet_ntoa IP_ADDRESS, INADDR_ANY, INADDR_BROADCAST, INADDR_LOOPBACK, INADDR_NONE, sockaddr_family SOCKADDR, sockaddr_in PORT, ADDRESS, sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, pack_sockaddr_in PORT, IP_ADDRESS, unpack_sockaddr_in SOCKADDR_IN, sockaddr_un PATHNAME, sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN, pack_sockaddr_un PATH, unpack_sockaddr_un SOCKADDR_UN

    Storable - persistence for Perl data structures

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    MEMORY STORE
    ADVISORY LOCKING
    SPEED
    CANONICAL REPRESENTATION
    CODE REFERENCES
    FORWARD COMPATIBILITY

    utf8 data, restricted hashes, files from future versions of Storable

    ERROR REPORTING
    WIZARDS ONLY
    Hooks

    STORABLE_freeze obj, cloning, STORABLE_thaw obj, cloning, serialized, .., STORABLE_attach class, cloning, serialized

    Predicates

    Storable::last_op_in_netorder, Storable::is_storing, Storable::is_retrieving

    Recursion
    Deep Cloning
    Storable magic
    EXAMPLES
    WARNING
    BUGS
    1. bit data in perl 5.6.0 and 5.6.1
    CREDITS
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Switch - A switch statement for Perl

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    BACKGROUND
    DESCRIPTION
    Allowing fall-through
    Automating fall-through
    Alternative syntax
    Higher-order Operations
    DEPENDENCIES
    AUTHOR
    BUGS
    LIMITATIONS
    COPYRIGHT

    Symbol - manipulate Perl symbols and their names

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS

    Sys::Hostname - Try every conceivable way to get hostname

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    Syslog, Sys::Syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORTS
    FUNCTIONS

    openlog($ident, $logopt, $facility), syslog($priority, $message), syslog($priority, $format, @args), Note, setlogmask($mask_priority), setlogsock($sock_type), setlogsock($sock_type, $stream_location) (added in 5.004_02), closelog()

    EXAMPLES
    CONSTANTS
    Facilities
    Levels
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Invalid argument passed to setlogsock, no connection to syslog available, stream passed to setlogsock, but %s is not writable, stream passed to setlogsock, but could not find any device, tcp passed to setlogsock, but tcp service unavailable, syslog: expecting argument %s, syslog: invalid level/facility: %s, syslog: too many levels given: %s, syslog: too many facilities given: %s, syslog: level must be given, udp passed to setlogsock, but udp service unavailable, unix passed to setlogsock, but path not available

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    BUGS
    SUPPORT

    AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation, CPAN Ratings, RT: CPAN's request tracker, Search CPAN

    LICENSE

    Syslog::Syslog, Sys::Syslog - Perl interface to the UNIX syslog(3) calls

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXPORTS
    FUNCTIONS

    openlog($ident, $logopt, $facility), syslog($priority, $message), syslog($priority, $format, @args), Note, setlogmask($mask_priority), setlogsock($sock_type), setlogsock($sock_type, $stream_location) (added in 5.004_02), closelog()

    EXAMPLES
    CONSTANTS
    Facilities
    Levels
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Invalid argument passed to setlogsock, no connection to syslog available, stream passed to setlogsock, but %s is not writable, stream passed to setlogsock, but could not find any device, tcp passed to setlogsock, but tcp service unavailable, syslog: expecting argument %s, syslog: invalid level/facility: %s, syslog: too many levels given: %s, syslog: too many facilities given: %s, syslog: level must be given, udp passed to setlogsock, but udp service unavailable, unix passed to setlogsock, but path not available

    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR
    BUGS
    SUPPORT

    AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation, CPAN Ratings, RT: CPAN's request tracker, Search CPAN

    LICENSE

    Term::ANSIColor - Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Bad escape sequence %s, Bareword ``%s'' not allowed while ``strict subs'' in use, Invalid attribute name %s, Name ``%s'' used only once: possible typo, No comma allowed after filehandle, No name for escape sequence %s

    ENVIRONMENT

    ANSI_COLORS_DISABLED

    RESTRICTIONS
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Term::Cap - Perl termcap interface

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    METHODS

    Tgetent, OSPEED, TERM

    Tpad, $string, $cnt, $FH

    Tputs, $cap, $cnt, $FH

    Tgoto, $cap, $col, $row, $FH

    Trequire

    EXAMPLES
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Term::Complete - Perl word completion module

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    <tab>, ^D, ^U, <del>, <bs>

    DIAGNOSTICS
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Term::ReadLine - Perl interface to various readline packages. If no real package is found, substitutes stubs instead of basic functions.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Minimal set of supported functions

    ReadLine, new, readline, addhistory, IN, OUT, MinLine, findConsole, Attribs, Features

    Additional supported functions

    tkRunning, ornaments, newTTY

    EXPORTS
    ENVIRONMENT
    CAVEATS

    Test - provides a simple framework for writing test scripts

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    QUICK START GUIDE
    Functions

    plan(...), tests => number, todo => [1,5,14], onfail => sub { ... }, onfail => \&some_sub

    _to_value

    ok(...)

    skip(skip_if_true, args...)

    TEST TYPES

    NORMAL TESTS, SKIPPED TESTS, TODO TESTS

    ONFAIL
    BUGS and CAVEATS
    ENVIRONMENT
    NOTE
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHOR

    Test::Builder - Backend for building test libraries

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Construction

    new

    create

    reset

    Setting up tests

    exported_to

    plan

    expected_tests

    no_plan

    has_plan

    skip_all

    Running tests

    ok

    is_eq, is_num

    isnt_eq, isnt_num

    like, unlike

    maybe_regex

    cmp_ok

    BAIL_OUT

    skip

    todo_skip

    skip_rest

    Test style

    level

    use_numbers

    no_diag, no_ending, no_header

    Output

    diag

    _print

    _print_diag

    output, failure_output, todo_output

    Test Status and Info

    current_test

    summary

    details

    todo

    caller

    _sanity_check

    _whoa

    _my_exit

    EXIT CODES
    THREADS
    EXAMPLES
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Test::Builder::Module - Base class for test modules

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Importing
    Builder

    Test::Builder::Tester - test testsuites that have been built with Test::Builder

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Methods

    test_out, test_err

    test_fail

    test_diag

    test_test, title (synonym 'name', 'label'), skip_out, skip_err

    line_num

    color

    BUGS
    AUTHOR
    NOTES
    SEE ALSO

    Test::Builder::Tester::Color - turn on colour in Test::Builder::Tester

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO

    Test::Harness - Run Perl standard test scripts with statistics

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Taint mode
    Configuration variables.

    $Test::Harness::Verbose, $Test::Harness::switches, $Test::Harness::Timer

    Failure

    Failed Test, Stat, Wstat, Total, Fail, Failed, List of Failed

    Functions

    runtests

    _all_ok

    _globdir

    _run_all_tests

    _mk_leader

    _leader_width

    EXPORT
    DIAGNOSTICS

    All tests successful.\nFiles=%d, Tests=%d, %s, FAILED tests %s\n\tFailed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay., Test returned status %d (wstat %d), Failed 1 test, %.2f%% okay. %s, Failed %d/%d tests, %.2f%% okay. %s, FAILED--Further testing stopped: %s

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES THAT TEST::HARNESS SETS

    HARNESS_ACTIVE, HARNESS_VERSION

    ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES THAT AFFECT TEST::HARNESS

    HARNESS_COLUMNS, HARNESS_COMPILE_TEST, HARNESS_DEBUG, HARNESS_FILELEAK_IN_DIR, HARNESS_IGNORE_EXITCODE, HARNESS_NOTTY, HARNESS_PERL, HARNESS_PERL_SWITCHES, HARNESS_VERBOSE

    EXAMPLE
    SEE ALSO
    TODO
    BUGS
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Test::Harness::Assert - simple assert

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS
    assert()
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Test::Harness::Iterator - Internal Test::Harness Iterator

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    new()
    next()

    Test::Harness::Point - object for tracking a single test point

    SYNOPSIS
    CONSTRUCTION
    new()
    from_test_line( $line )
    ACCESSORS

    ok, number

    Test::Harness::Straps - detailed analysis of test results

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CONSTRUCTION
    new()
    $strap->_init
    ANALYSIS
    $strap->analyze( $name, \@output_lines )
    $strap->analyze_fh( $name, $test_filehandle )
    $strap->analyze_file( $test_file )
    $strap->_command_line( $file )
    $strap->_command()
    $strap->_switches( $file )
    $strap->_cleaned_switches( @switches_from_user )
    $strap->_INC2PERL5LIB
    $strap->_filtered_INC()
    $strap->_restore_PERL5LIB()
    Parsing
    _is_diagnostic
    _is_header
    _is_bail_out
    _reset_file_state
    Results
    EXAMPLES
    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    Test::Harness::TAP - Documentation for the TAP format

    SYNOPSIS
    TODO
    THE TAP FORMAT
    HARNESS BEHAVIOR
    TESTS LINES AND THE PLAN
    The plan
    The test line

    ok or not ok, Test number, Description, Directive, ok/not ok (required), Test number (recommended), Description (recommended), Directive (only when necessary)

    DIRECTIVES
    TODO tests
    Skipping tests
    OTHER LINES
    Bail out!
    Diagnostics
    Anything else
    EXAMPLES
    Common with explanation
    Unknown amount and failures
    Giving up
    Skipping a few
    Skipping everything
    Got spare tuits?
    Creative liberties
    AUTHORS
    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    COPYRIGHT

    Test::More - yet another framework for writing test scripts

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    I love it when a plan comes together
    Test names
    I'm ok, you're not ok.

    ok

    is, isnt

    like

    unlike

    cmp_ok

    can_ok

    isa_ok

    pass, fail

    Module tests

    use_ok

    require_ok

    Complex data structures

    is_deeply

    Diagnostics

    diag

    Conditional tests

    SKIP: BLOCK

    TODO: BLOCK, todo_skip

    When do I use SKIP vs. TODO?

    Test control

    BAIL_OUT

    Discouraged comparison functions

    eq_array

    eq_hash

    eq_set

    Extending and Embedding Test::More

    builder

    EXIT CODES
    CAVEATS and NOTES

    Backwards compatibility, Overloaded objects, Threads, Test::Harness upgrade

    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    BUGS
    COPYRIGHT

    Test::Simple - Basic utilities for writing tests.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    ok

    EXAMPLE
    CAVEATS
    NOTES
    HISTORY
    SEE ALSO

    the Test::More manpage, the Test manpage, the Test::Unit manpage, the Test::Inline manpage, SelfTest, the Test::Harness manpage

    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Test::Tutorial - A tutorial about writing really basic tests

    DESCRIPTION
    Nuts and bolts of testing.
    Where to start?
    Names
    Test the manual
    Sometimes the tests are wrong
    Testing lots of values
    Informative names
    Skipping tests
    Todo tests
    Testing with taint mode.
    FOOTNOTES
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT

    Text::Abbrev, abbrev - create an abbreviation table from a list

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE

    Text::Balanced - Extract delimited text sequences from strings.

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    General behaviour in list contexts

    [0], [1], [2]

    General behaviour in scalar and void contexts
    A note about prefixes
    extract_delimited
    extract_bracketed
    extract_variable

    [0], [1], [2]

    extract_tagged

    reject => $listref, ignore => $listref, fail => $str, [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

    gen_extract_tagged
    extract_quotelike

    [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]

    extract_quotelike and ``here documents''

    [0], [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7..10]

    extract_codeblock
    extract_multiple
    gen_delimited_pat
    DIAGNOSTICS
     C<Did not find a suitable bracket: "%s">,  C<Did not find prefix: /%s/>, 
    C<Did not find opening bracket after prefix: "%s">,  C<No quotelike
    operator found after prefix: "%s">,  C<Unmatched closing bracket: "%c">, 
    C<Unmatched opening bracket(s): "%s">, C<Unmatched embedded quote (%s)>,
    C<Did not find closing delimiter to match '%s'>,  C<Mismatched closing
    bracket: expected "%c" but found "%s">,  C<No block delimiter found after
    quotelike "%s">, C<Did not find leading dereferencer>, C<Bad identifier
    after dereferencer>, C<Did not find expected opening bracket at %s>,
    C<Improperly nested codeblock at %s>,  C<Missing second block for quotelike
    "%s">, C<No match found for opening bracket>, C<Did not find opening tag:
    /%s/>, C<Unable to construct closing tag to match: /%s/>, C<Found invalid
    nested tag: %s>, C<Found unbalanced nested tag: %s>, C<Did not find closing
    tag>
    AUTHOR
    BUGS AND IRRITATIONS
    COPYRIGHT

    Text::ParseWords - parse text into an array of tokens or array of arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    AUTHORS

    Text::Soundex - Implementation of the Soundex Algorithm as Described by Knuth

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLES
    LIMITATIONS
    AUTHOR

    Text::Tabs -- expand and unexpand tabs per the unix expand(1) and unexpand(1)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS
    LICENSE

    Text::Wrap - line wrapping to form simple paragraphs

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    OVERRIDES
    EXAMPLE
    LICENSE

    Thread - manipulate threads in Perl (for old code only)

    CAVEAT
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS

    $thread = Thread->new(\&start_sub), $thread = Thread->new(\&start_sub, LIST), lock VARIABLE, async BLOCK;, Thread->self, cond_wait VARIABLE, cond_signal VARIABLE, cond_broadcast VARIABLE, yield

    METHODS

    join, eval, detach, equal, tid, flags, done

    LIMITATIONS
    SEE ALSO

    Thread::Queue - thread-safe queues

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

    new, enqueue LIST, dequeue, dequeue_nb, pending

    SEE ALSO

    Thread::Semaphore - thread-safe semaphores

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    FUNCTIONS AND METHODS

    new, new NUMBER, down, down NUMBER, up, up NUMBER

    Thread::Signal - Start a thread which runs signal handlers reliably (for old code)

    CAVEAT
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    BUGS

    Thread::Specific - thread-specific keys

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    Tie::Array - base class for tied arrays

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    TIEARRAY classname, LIST, STORE this, index, value, FETCH this, index, FETCHSIZE this, STORESIZE this, count, EXTEND this, count, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, DESTROY this, PUSH this, LIST, POP this, SHIFT this, UNSHIFT this, LIST, SPLICE this, offset, length, LIST

    CAVEATS
    AUTHOR

    Tie::File - Access the lines of a disk file via a Perl array

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    recsep
    autochomp
    mode
    memory
    dw_size
    Option Format
    Public Methods
    flock
    autochomp
    defer, flush, discard, and autodefer
    offset
    Tying to an already-opened filehandle
    Deferred Writing
    Autodeferring
    CONCURRENT ACCESS TO FILES
    CAVEATS
    SUBCLASSING
    WHAT ABOUT DB_File?
    AUTHOR
    LICENSE
    WARRANTY
    THANKS
    TODO

    Tie::Handle, Tie::StdHandle - base class definitions for tied handles

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    TIEHANDLE classname, LIST, WRITE this, scalar, length, offset, PRINT this, LIST, PRINTF this, format, LIST, READ this, scalar, length, offset, READLINE this, GETC this, CLOSE this, OPEN this, filename, BINMODE this, EOF this, TELL this, SEEK this, offset, whence, DESTROY this

    MORE INFORMATION
    COMPATIBILITY

    Tie::Hash, Tie::StdHash, Tie::ExtraHash - base class definitions for tied hashes

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    TIEHASH classname, LIST, STORE this, key, value, FETCH this, key, FIRSTKEY this, NEXTKEY this, lastkey, EXISTS this, key, DELETE this, key, CLEAR this, SCALAR this

    Inheriting from Tie::StdHash
    Inheriting from Tie::ExtraHash
    SCALAR, UNTIE and DESTROY
    MORE INFORMATION

    Tie::Memoize - add data to hash when needed

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Inheriting from Tie::Memoize
    EXAMPLE
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    Tie::RefHash - use references as hash keys

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    EXAMPLE
    AUTHOR
    VERSION
    SEE ALSO

    Tie::Scalar, Tie::StdScalar - base class definitions for tied scalars

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    TIESCALAR classname, LIST, FETCH this, STORE this, value, DESTROY this

    MORE INFORMATION

    Tie::SubstrHash - Fixed-table-size, fixed-key-length hashing

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    CAVEATS

    Time::HiRes - High resolution alarm, sleep, gettimeofday, interval timers

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    gettimeofday (), usleep ( $useconds ), nanosleep ( $nanoseconds ), ualarm ( $useconds [, $interval_useconds ] ), tv_interval, time (), sleep ( $floating_seconds ), alarm ( $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_seconds ] ), setitimer ( $which, $floating_seconds [, $interval_floating_seconds ] ), getitimer ( $which ), clock_gettime ( $which ), clock_getres ( $which ), clock_nanosleep ( $which, $seconds, $flags = 0), clock()

    EXAMPLES
    C API
    DIAGNOSTICS
    negative time not invented yet
    internal error: useconds < 0 (unsigned ... signed ...)
    CAVEATS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

    Time::Local - efficiently compute time from local and GMT time

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Ambiguous Local Times (DST)
    Non-Existent Local Times (DST)
    Negative Epoch Values
    IMPLEMENTATION
    BUGS
    SUPPORT
    AUTHOR

    Time::gmtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in gmtime() function

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Time::localtime - by-name interface to Perl's built-in localtime() function

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    Time::tm - internal object used by Time::gmtime and Time::localtime

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    AUTHOR

    UNIVERSAL - base class for ALL classes (blessed references)

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION

    $obj->isa( TYPE ), CLASS->isa( TYPE ), isa( VAL, TYPE ), TYPE, $obj, CLASS, VAL, $obj->can( METHOD ), < CLASS-can( METHOD ) >>, can( VAL, METHOD ), VERSION ( [ REQUIRE ] )

    EXPORTS

    Unicode::Collate - Unicode Collation Algorithm

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Constructor and Tailoring

    UCA_Version, alternate, backwards, entry, hangul_terminator, ignoreChar, ignoreName, katakana_before_hiragana, level, normalization, overrideCJK, overrideHangul, preprocess, rearrange, table, undefChar, undefName, upper_before_lower, variable

    Methods for Collation

    @sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted), $result = $Collator-E<gt>cmp($a, $b), $result = $Collator->eq($a, $b), $result = $Collator->ne($a, $b), $result = $Collator->lt($a, $b), $result = $Collator->le($a, $b), $result = $Collator-E<gt>gt($a, $b), $result = $Collator->ge($a, $b), $sortKey = $Collator->getSortKey($string), $sortKeyForm = $Collator-E<gt>viewSortKey($string)

    Methods for Searching

    $position = $Collator->index($string, $substring[, $position]), ($position, $length) = $Collator->index($string, $substring[, $position]), $match_ref = $Collator->match($string, $substring), ($match) = $Collator->match($string, $substring), @match = $Collator-E<gt>gmatch($string, $substring), $count = $Collator-E<gt>subst($string, $substring, $replacement), $count = $Collator-E<gt>gsubst($string, $substring, $replacement)

    Other Methods

    %old_tailoring = $Collator->change(%new_tailoring), $version = $Collator-E<gt>version(), UCA_Version(), Base_Unicode_Version()

    EXPORT
    INSTALL
    CAVEATS

    Normalization, Conformance Test

    AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
    SEE ALSO

    Unicode Collation Algorithm - UTS #10, The Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET), The conformance test for the UCA, Hangul Syllable Type, Unicode Normalization Forms - UAX #15

    Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Normalization Forms

    $NFD_string = NFD($string), $NFC_string = NFC($string), $NFKD_string = NFKD($string), $NFKC_string = NFKC($string), $FCD_string = FCD($string), $FCC_string = FCC($string), $normalized_string = normalize($form_name, $string)

    Decomposition and Composition

    $decomposed_string = decompose($string), $decomposed_string = decompose($string, $useCompatMapping), $reordered_string = reorder($string), $composed_string = compose($string)

    Quick Check

    $result = checkNFD($string), $result = checkNFC($string), $result = checkNFKD($string), $result = checkNFKC($string), $result = checkFCD($string), $result = checkFCC($string), $result = check($form_name, $string)

    Character Data

    $canonical_decomposed = getCanon($codepoint), $compatibility_decomposed = getCompat($codepoint), $codepoint_composite = getComposite($codepoint_here, $codepoint_next), $combining_class = getCombinClass($codepoint), $is_exclusion = isExclusion($codepoint), $is_singleton = isSingleton($codepoint), $is_non_starter_decomposition = isNonStDecomp($codepoint), $may_be_composed_with_prev_char = isComp2nd($codepoint)

    EXPORT
    CAVEATS

    Perl's version vs. Unicode version, Correction of decomposition mapping, Revised definition of canonical composition

    AUTHOR
    SEE ALSO

    http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/, http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/DerivedNormalizationProps.txt, http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/NormalizationCorrections.txt, http://www.unicode.org/review/pr-29.html, http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn5/

    Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    charinfo
    charblock
    charscript
    charblocks
    charscripts
    Blocks versus Scripts
    Matching Scripts and Blocks
    Code Point Arguments
    charinrange
    compexcl
    casefold
    casespec
    namedseq()
    Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion
    Implementation Note
    BUGS
    AUTHOR

    User::grent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getgr*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    NOTE
    AUTHOR

    User::pwent - by-name interface to Perl's built-in getpw*() functions

    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    System Specifics
    NOTE
    AUTHOR
    HISTORY

    March 18th, 2000

    XSLoader - Dynamically load C libraries into Perl code

    VERSION
    SYNOPSIS
    DESCRIPTION
    Migration from DynaLoader
    Backward compatible boilerplate
    Order of initialization: early load()
    The most hairy case
    DIAGNOSTICS

    Can't find '%s' symbol in %s, Can't load '%s' for module %s: %s, Undefined symbols present after loading %s: %s, XSLoader::load('Your::Module', $Your::Module::VERSION)

    LIMITATIONS
    BUGS
    SEE ALSO
    AUTHORS
    COPYRIGHT


    AUXILIARY DOCUMENTATION

    Here should be listed all the extra programs' documentation, but they don't all have manual pages yet:

    a2p
    c2ph
    dprofpp
    h2ph
    h2xs
    perlbug
    perldoc
    pl2pm
    pod2html
    pod2man
    s2p
    splain
    xsubpp


    AUTHOR

    Larry Wall <larry@wall.org>, with the help of oodles of other folks.