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Ulm's Modula-2 System:


mmm - make makefile for Modula-2


mmm [-aelLmPtT] [-v(-|r|s)] [-(c|C|u) makefile] [-p proto] [file...]


Mmm is a general tool for extracting dependency information from Modula-2 and Modula/R source files. By default mmm generates output in a form acceptable by make(1) onto standard output.

If -c is given, a makefile is created which can be updated later using -u. Makefiles created by -c contain several sections delimited by comments. Every section which is to be updated by mmm is preceded by a comment with a keyword enclosed in braces. Macro definitions generated by mmm (except those defined in the {macros} section) may be redefined without losing their value on updates. If -e is given environment variables supercede any macro value defaults of mmm on makefile creation. Flags given by makefile creation or updating are remembered by a special comment inside the makefile and work as defaults for further mmm invocations. By default mmm works on the source files given in the command line. They may be omitted on makefile updating if a SRC macro definition is found.

On makefile creation a prototype is taken (except -C is given instead of -c). Mmm tries to take $HOME/.mmm_proto first, then /usr/local/lib/modula/mmm_proto. These defaults may be overrided by giving another prototype file using the -p option. A typical prototype consists of the wanted section headings and some additional rules like cleanup and source file printing.

For each main module the transitive closure of dependencies is calculated and printed in the list of modules to be linked to. The main module names determine the output filenames of ld(1).

Following flags are available:

This flag is necessary if symbol files are to be archived in SYM. If you decide to archive symbol files you must create SYM first. This is best done by ar q SYM.
Generate rules for maintaining non-main-objects in a library. The filename of the library may be given in the environment parameter LIB (if -e is given) or may be modified in the macro definition.
Generate dependencies even to not explicitely given modules. For doing this the complete MODPATH (see m2c) and the library (MODLIB or /usr/local/lib/modula) are considered. On this flag mmm warns about every module not found.
implies -l and causes mmm to generate rules for supporting a library with profiled objects of non-main modules. See m2c for more information about profiled libraries.
Report about calling reference cycles (e.g. module a imports b and module b imports a). The main problem of reference cycles is the undefined order of initialization; so every reference cycle member must not use anything of the other members during initialization.
Print given source files in topsorted order. Following command causes correct order of compilation:
m2c `mmm -t *.d	*.m2`	or   mrc `mmm -t *.d* *.m[r2]`
Print imports in a form suitable for tsort(1):
file1 file2
means file2 imports from file1. Unlike to the dependency section in makefiles the source file names are printed. So -T is very similar to -t:
		    m2c	`mmm -t	*.d *.m2`
is equivalent to    m2c	`mmm -T	*.d *.m2 | tsort`
and equivalent to   m2c	`mmm -T	*.d *.m2 | cut -d' ' -f1 | uniq`
Support one of the version managers (s for SCCS or r for rcs). The use of any version manager can be switched off by giving -. Because version archive names are derived from the original file names by adding some prefix or suffix, problems may occur with long file or module names. Mmm warns if any of these problems could arise.


m2c, mdb, make(1)


/usr/local/lib/modula/mmm_proto default prototype
$HOME/.mmm_proto own prototype file


Various difficulties (e.g. m2c does not find symbol files) occur if the first 11 characters of a module name are not identical to the corresponding file name.

On -L, mmm generates dependencies to symbolfiles in libraries only. So, implementation module updating in libraries don't causes make(1) to link again. That's because mmm doesn't know about inter-library dependencies.

Make(1) has several bugs and shortcomings (due to design errors) in context with archives and version managers. To get around them mmm is forced in some cases to avoid rules and to generate transformations explicitely. Also, sometimes the order of files depending on is not lexicographic but topologic.

Edited by: borchert, last change: 2003/12/10, revision: 1.3, converted to HTML: 1903/12/10

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